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Intergroup exercise Goal: “win as much as you can” Goal: “win as much as you can”

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Intergroup exercise Goal: “win as much as you can” Goal: “win as much as you can” Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round)

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Intergroup exercise Goal: “win as much as you can” Goal: “win as much as you can” Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) 4 combinations are possible 4 combinations are possible –R/R; G/G; R/G; G/R combination will be communicated by teacher

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Intergroup exercise Goal: “win as much as you can” Goal: “win as much as you can” Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) 4 combinations are possible 4 combinations are possible –R/R; G/G; R/G; G/R combination will be communicated by teacher Each (combination of) decisions has a (financial) effect Each (combination of) decisions has a (financial) effect So, the pay-off of a decision depends also on the decision of the other group

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Intergroup exercise Goal: “win as much as you can” Goal: “win as much as you can” Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) 4 combinations are possible 4 combinations are possible –R/R; G/G; R/G; G/R combination will be communicated by teacher Each (combination of) decisions has a (financial) effect Each (combination of) decisions has a (financial) effect So, the pay-off of a decision depends also on the decision of the other group There are 9 decision rounds. Write down payoffs round by round (+ sommon) There are 9 decision rounds. Write down payoffs round by round (+ sommon)

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Intergroup exercise Goal: “win as much as you can” Goal: “win as much as you can” Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) 4 combinations are possible 4 combinations are possible –R/R; G/G; R/G; G/R combination will be communicated by teacher Each (combination of) decisions has a (financial) effect Each (combination of) decisions has a (financial) effect So, the pay-off of a decision depends also on the decision of the other group There are 9 decision rounds. Write down payoffs round by round (+ sommon) There are 9 decision rounds. Write down payoffs round by round (+ sommon) No communication is allowed between the groups, except by a negotiator after round 3, 6 en 8 No communication is allowed between the groups, except by a negotiator after round 3, 6 en 8

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Intergroup exercise Goal: “win as much as you can” Goal: “win as much as you can” Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) Two groups (A in one classroom and B in another classroom are making choices: GREEN or RED write down on coloured cards (3 minutes for each round) 4 combinations are possible 4 combinations are possible –R/R; G/G; R/G; G/R combination will be communicated by teacher Each (combination of) decisions has a (financial) effect Each (combination of) decisions has a (financial) effect So, the pay-off of a decision depends also on the decision of the other group There are 9 decision rounds. Write down payoffs round by round (+ sommon) There are 9 decision rounds. Write down payoffs round by round (+ sommon) No communication is allowed between the groups, except by a negotiator after round 3, 6 en 8 No communication is allowed between the groups, except by a negotiator after round 3, 6 en 8 The pay-offs are multiplied in rounds 4, 7, 8, 9 The pay-offs are multiplied in rounds 4, 7, 8, 9

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A versus B Groups are divided in 4 duo’s Groups are divided in 4 duo’s A blue – B blue A pink – B pink A lime – B lime A fuchsia – B fuchsia

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decision of group A decision of group B pay-off for group A pay-off for group B GREENREDREDGREENREDGREENREDGREEN + 900 - 900 + 400 - 500 - 1000 + 1000 + 500 - 500

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Reflections (A and B seperate) Decribe your perceptions of Decribe your perceptions of –your own group:... (5 characteristics) –the other group:... (5 characteristics) Write these perceptions down on a transparent: Group A or B (+ colour) Other group Own group.....….. …..…..

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Reflections (A and B seperate) Analyse your INTRA-group process Analyse your INTRA-group process –communication between members –decision making? –cohesion?

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Reflections (A and B seperate) Analyse the INTER-group process Analyse the INTER-group process –common goal –trust /distrust –position of the negotiator –future cooperation? how can you improve this? –effectivity on an organisational level?

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A and B groups get together Discussion between A & B (compare answers on previous assignments) Discussion between A & B (compare answers on previous assignments) What went wrong/right? What went wrong/right? How do you feel about each other? How do you feel about each other?

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Reflections Decribe your perceptions of Decribe your perceptions of –your own group:... (5 characteristics) –the other group:... (5 characteristics)

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Car company R & D PRODUCTION PRODUCTION*stargazers*unrealistic*book-knowlegde *voices in wilderness * workers *cash-cows*problem-solvers *pillars of company R & D *future-oriented*long-term*market-oriented*experts*narrow-minded *occupational therapy *boffins*nit-pickers

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Result for A & B and for the organisation results group A results group B resultsOrganisation

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Win as much as you can Cooperation or competition = CHOICE Cooperation or competition = CHOICE –GREEN = chosing for competition Self interest! –RED = chosing for cooperation Common interest!

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Win as much as you can If both groups chose for “win-lose” (GREEN) “lose-lose” If both groups chose for “win-lose” (GREEN) “lose-lose”

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Win as much as you can Best individual group result is: Best individual group result is: 22.500 for A 25.000 for B Worst group result is: Worst group result is: -22.500 for A -25.000 for B Best organisational result is: Best organisational result is: 10.000 for A 12.500 for B = 22.500 Worst organisational result is: Worst organisational result is: -12.500 for A -25.000 for B = -37.500

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Organizational Example “Safety campaign” “Safety campaign” –GOAL= to reduce number of accidents = to reduce gravity of accidents = to reduce gravity of accidents –Management: “safest team gets a trip to the Carribean islands” Situation after one year: Situation after one year: –Number of accidents = + 20% –Numer of serious accidents = + 5%

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Organizational Example What happened? What happened? Competition between teams (“win-lose”) making other team come out as loser: Not reporting an error on the machine Leave about the hammer Not cleaning up oil on the floor … Competition has in INVERSE effect

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WIN-LOSE dynamics Within each group: Within each group: –Task oriented –Cohesive –Highly structured –Loyalty – pressure

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WIN-LOSE dynamics Between competing groups: Between competing groups: – Distortion of perception – negative stereotyping – Others are seen as enemies – Selective perception – only listening to what supports own point of view – Personalizing – Hostility increases – interaction decreases

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Vicious circle negative perception decreasing & unconstructive communication negative relationship “distrust”

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What happens to the negotiators? role conflict between role conflict between –being a good judge: thinking independly and taking into account every point of view –being a good group-member: defending the point of view of their own group, because of group loyalty & group pressure if their group loses: if their group loses: –much difficulty re-entering the group –much scapegoating behavior

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Win as much as you can Weird reactions: Weird reactions: AB reality = -4700 -10.000 Perception of A = “WE WON!!” (!?) Lack of realism Even if A and B would be competing companies

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WIN-LOSE consequences Consequences of winning/losing Consequences of winning/losing winner is fat & happy; loser is lean and hungry learning on a system (organizational) level decreases tension between groups increases Doing a favour for others = hard! Doing a favour for others = hard! People prefer to drown together

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Learning group assignment When did the two groups make a choice for cooperation/competition? When did the two groups make a choice for cooperation/competition? What were the effects on What were the effects on –trust/distrust? –communication & future cooperation? How effective have you been as an organisation? Explain why you were (in)effective How effective have you been as an organisation? Explain why you were (in)effective What did you learn form this exercise about intergroup cooperation? What did you learn form this exercise about intergroup cooperation? In learning report

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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-1 Chapter 8 Participative Management and Leading Teams.

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-1 Chapter 8 Participative Management and Leading Teams.

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