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Microsoft ® PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Organizational Behavior SEVENTH EDITION Gregory Moorhead and Ricky W. Griffin.

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Presentation on theme: "Microsoft ® PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Organizational Behavior SEVENTH EDITION Gregory Moorhead and Ricky W. Griffin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microsoft ® PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Organizational Behavior SEVENTH EDITION Gregory Moorhead and Ricky W. Griffin

2 Chapter 11 Group Dynamics

3 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3 Learning Objectives Define the term “groups” and discuss why the study of groups is important in managing organizations. Explain the differences between formal and informal groups. Trace the stages of development of groups from initial introduction to a mature stage of productivity and control. Summarize the key factors affecting group performance.

4 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 Learning Objectives [continued] Describe the important dimensions of intergroup behavior. Identify the key factors in managing conflict in groups and organizations. Discuss the factors that managers must consider in managing groups in organizations.

5 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 Overview of Groups and Group Dynamics “Group” Defined (Marvin Shaw) –A group is two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person. Authors’ Definition of “Group” –Group members must be interactive and influence each other. –Group members don’t necessarily share a goal or motivation. –There are limits on group size. A collection of people so large that its members cannot interact with and influence one another is not a group.

6 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.6 Overview of Groups and Group Dynamics [continued] The Importance of Studying Groups –We must study the behavior of people in group settings if we are to understand organizational behavior. –From a managerial perspective, the work group is the primary means by which managers coordinate individuals’ behavior to achieve organizational goals. Group Formation –Managers can manage conflicts better when they understand why groups form.

7 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 Figure 11.1 A General Model of Group Dynamics

8 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.8 Formal Groups –Are established by the organization to do its work and are usually included in the organization chart. Formal Groups Include: –The command group, which is a relatively permanent formal group with functional reporting responsibility. –The task group, which is a relatively temporary formal group established to do a specific task. –The affinity group, which consists of permanent collections of employees from the same level in the organization who meet on a regular basis to share information, capture emerging opportunities, and solve problems.

9 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 Table 11.1 Classification Scheme for Types of Groups

10 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.10 Informal Groups Informal groups are formed by their members. Informal groups include: –Friendship groups that are relatively permanent and arise out of the cordial relationships among group members. –Interest groups which may be shorter lived; which are organized around a common activity or interest.

11 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 Stages of Group Development Groups are not static – they typically develop through a four-stage process: –Mutual acceptance –Communication and decision making –Motivation and productivity –Control and organization

12 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.12 Figure 11.2 Stages of Group Development

13 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 Group Performance Factors: Composition Group Composition –The degree of similarity or difference among group members on factors important to the group’s work.

14 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 Table 11.2 Task Variables and Group Composition

15 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 Group Performance Factors: Size Size –The number of members of the group; size affects the number of resources available to perform the task. –Social loafing is the tendency of some members of groups to put forth less effort in a group than they would if working alone.

16 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.16 Group Performance Factors: Norms Norms –A norm is a standard against which the appropriateness of a behavior is judged. –Group norms usually are established during the second stage of group development. Norms serve four purposes: –Norms help the group survive. –Norms simplify and make more predictable the behavior expected of group members. –Norms help the group avoid embarrassing situations. –Norms express the central values of the group and identify the group to others.

17 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.17 Group Performance Factors: Cohesiveness Group Cohesiveness –The extent to which a group is committed to remaining together. –The forces that create cohesiveness are: Attraction to the group. Resistance to leaving the group. The motivation to remain a member of the group.

18 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.18 Figure 11.3 Factors that Affect Group Cohesiveness and the Consequences of Group Cohesiveness

19 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.19 Figure 11.4 Group Cohesiveness, Goals, and Productivity

20 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.20 Intergroup Dynamics A group’s contribution to an organization depends on its interactions with other groups as well as on its own productivity. Many organizations are expanding their use of cross-functional teams to address more complex and increasingly more important organizational issues.

21 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.21 Figure 11.5 Factors that Influence Intergroup Interactions

22 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.22 Conflict in Groups and Organizations Conflict –Conflict is disagreement among parties. It has both positive and negative characteristics. –In organizations, conflict is often generated by political behavior or battles over limited resources. –A total absence of conflict can lead to apathy while a moderate degree of conflict can stimulate new ideas.

23 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.23 The Nature of Conflict: Competition-Conflict Relationship Figure 11.6

24 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.24 Reactions to Conflict Avoidance –Occurs when the interacting parties’ goals are incompatible and the interaction between groups is relatively unimportant to the attainment of the goals. Accommodation –Occurs when the parties’ goals are compatible but the interaction between groups is relatively unimportant to the goals’ attainment. Competition –Occurs when the goals are incompatible and the interactions between groups are important to meeting the goals.

25 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.25 Reactions to Conflict [continued] Collaboration –Occurs when the interaction between groups is very important to goal attainment and the goals are compatible. Compromise –Occurs when the interactions are moderately important to meeting goals and the goals are neither completely compatible nor completely incompatible.

26 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.26 Figure 11.7 Five Types of Reactions to Conflict

27 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.27 Managing Conflict Conflict Resolution –Occurs when a manager resolves a conflict that has become harmful or serious. Conflict Stimulation –The creation and constructive use of conflict by a manager. Its purpose is to bring about situations where differences of opinion are exposed for examination by all. Superordinate Goal –Is an organizational goal that is more important to the organization than the goals of conflicting parties.

28 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.28 Figure 11.8 Conflict Management Alternatives

29 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.29 Managing Group and Intergroup Dynamics in Organizations Managing groups requires: –Knowing what types of groups exist in the organization. –Possibly “formalizing” some informal groups. –Breaking up groups to realign the organization and goals. –Nurturing groups through the developmental stages. –Encouraging the development of group norms and roles. –Developing a reward structure that fosters individual efforts to achieve group goals. –Assuming a linking role to coordinate the activities of groups.


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