Conflict Expressed difference between two or more people
Consequences of Dispute Communication becomes distorted. People view each other as stereotypes, not as human beings. Each new escalation in aggressive behavior is justified as a counter-response to the other person’s perceived aggression. Struggle to “win,” even if it means that the other person will lose. We have a “win–lose” battle. “zero-sum game,” meaning that everything you gain – dollars, status, power, authority – must be at someone else’s expense
Situations that can lead to disputes: Interdependence of people and tasks Jurisdictional ambiguities Functional overlap (turf) Competition for scarce resources Differences in organizational status and influence Incompatible objectives and/or methods Differences in behavioral style Differences in information Distortions in communication Unmet expectations Unmet needs or interests Unequal power or authority Misperceptions Historic animosities Ethnic stereotyping.
Components of Conflict Ambiguity: varying interpretations Uncertainty: unpredictable future Competition: winners and losers Stress and Pressure: high risk consequences Change: promoters and resisters
Types of conflict. Substantive conflict. A fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment. Emotional conflict. Interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, etc.
Different Types of Conflict Relationship Conflict Data Conflict Values Conflict Structural Conflict Interest Conflict Goal Conflict Method Conflict
Types of conflict. Functional (or constructive) conflict. Results in positive benefits to individuals, the group, or the organization. Dysfunctional (or destructive) conflict. Works to the disadvantage of individuals, the group, or the organization.
Stages of conflict. Conflict antecedents. Set the conditions for conflict. Perceived conflict. Substantive or emotional differences are sensed. Felt conflict. Tension creates motivation to act. Manifest conflict. Conflict resolution or suppression. Conflict aftermath.
What is negotiation? The process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences.
Definition of Negotiation Negotiation is one of the most common approaches used to make decisions and manage disputes. It is also the major building block for many other alternative dispute resolution procedures. Negotiation is a problem-solving process in which two or more people voluntarily discuss their differences and attempt to reach a joint decision on their common concerns.
Negotiation goals and outcomes. Substance goals. Outcomes that relate to content issues. Relationship goals. Outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiations and any constituencies they represent are able to work with one another once the process is concluded.
Effective negotiation. Occurs when substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or improved.
Positions in a Conflict ASSERTIVENESS COOPERATION High Low Secret ResistanceOpen Rebellion SubmissionWork to resolve Guerilla fighterOpen Warfare Conflict AvoiderPartner
Types of Negotiation Positional: “line in the sand” Distributional: “one pie, more for me means less for you” Collaborative: “expand the pie” Interest-based Integrative
Conditions for Negotiation Identifiable parties who are willing to participate Interdependence Readiness to negotiate Means of influence or leverage Agreement on some issues and interests Will to settle Unpredictability of outcome A sense of urgency and deadline The people must have the authority to decide The agreement must be reasonable and capable of implementation
Why Parties Choose to Negotiate? Gain recognition of either issues or parties Test the strength of other parties Obtain information about issues, interests, and positions of other parties Educate all sides about a particular view of an issue or concern Ventilate emotions about issues or people Change perceptions Mobilize public support Buy time Bring about a desired change in a relationship Develop new procedures for handling problems Make substantive gains Solve a problem.
Why Parties Refuse to Negotiate? Negotiating confers sense and legitimacy to an adversary, their goals and needs. Parties are fearful of being perceived as weak Discussions are premature. Meeting could provide false hope to an adversary or to one’s own constituency. Meeting could increase the visibility of the dispute. Negotiating could intensify the dispute. Parties lack confidence in the process. There is a lack of jurisdictional authority. Authoritative powers are unavailable or reluctant to meet. Meeting is too time-consuming. Parties need additional time to prepare.
Conflict De-Escalators Humanize Perspective Save Face Desire to Settle Share Savings Apology
The Four-Sights of Negotiation Wisdom Foresight: predict events and consequences Hindsight: learn from the past to derive lessons for the future Insight: understand yourself and your reactions to the world about you Oversight: see the wider scope, its meaning, and interdependence