Presentation on theme: "11–1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 11 Supervising Groups & Work Teams."— Presentation transcript:
11–1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 11 Supervising Groups & Work Teams
11–2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to: 1.Contrast a group and a team. 2.Define norm. 3.Explain the relationship between cohesiveness and group productivity. 4.Describe who is likely to become an emergent leader in an informal group. 5.Explain what a supervisor can do when group norms are hindering department performance. 6.List the characteristics of teams. 7.List actions a supervisor can take to improve team performance. 8.Describe the role of teams in continuous-improvement programs.
11–3 What is a Group? Group “Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives” (p. 305) Formal Group Example: Committees, group meetings, work teams, task force Informal Group Groups which are natural formations that appear in the work environment in response to the need for social contact (often to share frustration or let off steam)
11–4 Why Do People Join Groups?
11–5 Understanding Informal Groups To have a better understanding of informal groups, the following: Norms Acceptable standards (e.g., effort and performance, dress, and loyalty) shared and enforced by the members of a group –Output level –Absenteeism rates –socializing Cohesiveness The degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in a group Emergent leadership A leader who emerges within a work group without having formal authority in the organization
11–6 Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study Solomon Asch and Group Conformity: Does the desire to be accepted as a part of a group leave one susceptible to conforming to the group’s norms? Will the group exert pressure that is strong enough to change a member’s attitude and behavior? According to the research by Solomon Asch, the answer appears to be yes. Exhibit 8.9
11–7 How to Influence Informal Work Groups Group Norms Reward members who act against dysfunctional norms Request Transfer of one or more members Give preferred work assignments Department Goals Show how dysfunctional behavior undermine organizational, departmental, or group goals Emergent Leaders Identify and develop positive relationship with emergent leader Utilize grapevine and validate concerns with emergent leader
11–8 Teams vs. Work Groups Teams – work groups established by the organization & have designed work assignments and established tasks. Groups – individuals working together to share info & to make decisions to help each other perform better
11–9 Turning Groups into Teams Working group – group of individuals who interact to share information to help each other perform better Pseudo team – product of negative synergy Potential team – “Going in the right direction but not there yet” Real team – unit with a set of common characteristics that lead to consistently high performance
11–10 The Stages Of Team Development Stage 1: Forming The team experiences uncertainty about its purpose, structure, and leadership. Stage 2: Storming Intragroup conflict predominates within the group Stage 3: Norming Close relationships develop and group members begin to demonstrate cohesiveness. Stage 4: Performing The team develops a structure that is fully functional and accepted by team members. Stage 5: Adjourning The team prepares for its disbandment.
11–11 How to Build Real Teams Small Size – ten or fewer people Complementary Skills Technical skills Problem solving/decision-making skills Interpersonal skills Common Purpose – vision with meaningful purpose Specific goals – specific and realistic goals Common Approach – plans with equal workload Mutual Accountability – individual and group level Social loafing: the tendency of an individual in a group to decrease his or her effort because responsibility and individual achievement cannot be measured