Presentation on theme: "Supervision in Organizations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 11Supervising Groups & Work Teams
2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to: Contrast a group and a team.Define norm.Explain the relationship between cohesiveness and group productivity.Describe who is likely to become an emergent leader in an informal group.Explain what a supervisor can do when group norms are hindering department performance.List the characteristics of teams.List actions a supervisor can take to improve team performance.Describe the role of teams in continuous-improvement programs.
3 What is a Group?Group“Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives” (p. 305)Formal GroupExample: Committees, group meetings, work teams, task forceInformal GroupGroups which are natural formations that appear in the work environment in response to the need for social contact (often to share frustration or let off steam)
5 Understanding Informal Groups To have a better understanding of informal groups, the following:NormsAcceptable standards (e.g., effort and performance, dress, and loyalty) shared and enforced by the members of a groupOutput levelAbsenteeism ratessocializingCohesivenessThe degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in a groupEmergent leadershipA leader who emerges within a work group without having formal authority in the organization
6 Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study Solomon Asch’s classic study demonstrated that people desire to be one of the group and to avoid being different, so they feel pressure to conform.Solomon Asch and Group Conformity: Does the desire to be accepted as a part of a group leave one susceptible to conforming to the group’s norms? Will the group exert pressure that is strong enough to change a member’s attitude and behavior? According to the research by Solomon Asch, the answer appears to be yes.Exhibit 8.9
7 How to Influence Informal Work Groups Group NormsReward members who act against dysfunctional normsRequest Transfer of one or more membersGive preferred work assignmentsDepartment GoalsShow how dysfunctional behavior undermine organizational, departmental, or group goalsEmergent LeadersIdentify and develop positive relationship with emergent leaderUtilize grapevine and validate concerns with emergent leader
8 Teams vs. Work GroupsTeams – work groups established by the organization & have designed work assignments and established tasks.Groups – individuals working together to share info & to make decisions to help each other perform better
9 Turning Groups into Teams Working group – group of individuals who interact to share information to help each other perform betterPseudo team – product of negative synergyPotential team – “Going in the right direction but not there yet”Real team – unit with a set of common characteristics that lead to consistently high performance
10 The Stages Of Team Development Stage 1: FormingThe team experiences uncertainty about its purpose, structure, and leadership.Stage 2: StormingIntragroup conflict predominates within the groupStage 3: NormingClose relationships develop and group members begin to demonstrate cohesiveness.Stage 4: PerformingThe team develops a structure that is fully functional and accepted by team members.Stage 5: AdjourningThe team prepares for its disbandment.Team development is a dynamic, ongoing process that can be broken into five stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.The first stage, forming, is characterized by uncertainty about the team’s purpose, structure, and leadership. This stage is when members begin to think of themselves as a team.The storming stage involves intragroup conflict over individual roles and leadership. This stage is complete when there is relatively clear leadership within the team.In the norming stage, close relationships and group cohesiveness develop. This stage is complete when the team’s structure solidifies and members have accepted group norms that pertain to workplace behavior.In the fourth stage, performing, the structure is fully functional and accepted by all team members. For permanent teams, performing is the last stage.For temporary teams, though, the final stage is adjourning, and the team wraps-up activities and prepares to disband.
11 How to Build Real Teams Small Size – ten or fewer people Complementary SkillsTechnical skillsProblem solving/decision-making skillsInterpersonal skillsCommon Purpose – vision with meaningful purposeSpecific goals – specific and realistic goalsCommon Approach – plans with equal workloadMutual Accountability – individual and group levelSocial loafing: the tendency of an individual in a group to decrease his or her effort because responsibility and individual achievement cannot be measured