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11–1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 11 Supervising Groups & Work Teams.

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Presentation on theme: "11–1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 11 Supervising Groups & Work Teams."— Presentation transcript:

1 11–1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 11 Supervising Groups & Work Teams

2 11–2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to: 1.Contrast a group and a team. 2.Define norm. 3.Explain the relationship between cohesiveness and group productivity. 4.Describe who is likely to become an emergent leader in an informal group. 5.Explain what a supervisor can do when group norms are hindering department performance. 6.List the characteristics of teams. 7.List actions a supervisor can take to improve team performance. 8.Describe the role of teams in continuous-improvement programs.

3 11–3 What is a Group? Group “Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives” (p. 305)  Formal Group  Example: Committees, group meetings, work teams, task force  Informal Group  Groups which are natural formations that appear in the work environment in response to the need for social contact (often to share frustration or let off steam)

4 11–4 Why Do People Join Groups?

5 11–5 Understanding Informal Groups To have a better understanding of informal groups, the following:  Norms  Acceptable standards (e.g., effort and performance, dress, and loyalty) shared and enforced by the members of a group –Output level –Absenteeism rates –socializing  Cohesiveness  The degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in a group  Emergent leadership  A leader who emerges within a work group without having formal authority in the organization

6 11–6 Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study Solomon Asch and Group Conformity: Does the desire to be accepted as a part of a group leave one susceptible to conforming to the group’s norms? Will the group exert pressure that is strong enough to change a member’s attitude and behavior? According to the research by Solomon Asch, the answer appears to be yes. Exhibit 8.9

7 11–7 How to Influence Informal Work Groups Group Norms  Reward members who act against dysfunctional norms  Request Transfer of one or more members  Give preferred work assignments Department Goals  Show how dysfunctional behavior undermine organizational, departmental, or group goals Emergent Leaders  Identify and develop positive relationship with emergent leader  Utilize grapevine and validate concerns with emergent leader

8 11–8 Teams vs. Work Groups Teams – work groups established by the organization & have designed work assignments and established tasks. Groups – individuals working together to share info & to make decisions to help each other perform better

9 11–9 Turning Groups into Teams Working group – group of individuals who interact to share information to help each other perform better Pseudo team – product of negative synergy Potential team – “Going in the right direction but not there yet” Real team – unit with a set of common characteristics that lead to consistently high performance

10 11–10 The Stages Of Team Development Stage 1: Forming  The team experiences uncertainty about its purpose, structure, and leadership. Stage 2: Storming  Intragroup conflict predominates within the group Stage 3: Norming  Close relationships develop and group members begin to demonstrate cohesiveness. Stage 4: Performing  The team develops a structure that is fully functional and accepted by team members. Stage 5: Adjourning  The team prepares for its disbandment.

11 11–11 How to Build Real Teams Small Size – ten or fewer people Complementary Skills  Technical skills  Problem solving/decision-making skills  Interpersonal skills Common Purpose – vision with meaningful purpose Specific goals – specific and realistic goals Common Approach – plans with equal workload Mutual Accountability – individual and group level  Social loafing: the tendency of an individual in a group to decrease his or her effort because responsibility and individual achievement cannot be measured

12 11–12 Team Challenges for Supervisors

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