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A New Kind of Revolution Ch 21 Sec 1 Pages 633-639.

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1 A New Kind of Revolution Ch 21 Sec 1 Pages 633-639

2 A couple of things to Answer  What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution? and  How did the Industrial Revolution impact the world?

3 A couple of things to Answer  Explain how the Industrial Revolution caused economic, cultural, and political changes around the world. OR  Summarize the origin and spread of the Industrial Revolution

4 What you will learn  In the 1700s, conditions in Great Britain led to the rapid growth of the textile industry, which in turn led to huge changes in many other industries.

5 Revolution in Great Britain  1700s = change in technology  energy source changed from human & animal power to machinery  Industrial Revolution occurred when use of power-driven machinery was developed  this started in Great Britain

6 Crash Course  Coal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History #32 - YouTube#at=49 Coal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History #32 - YouTube#at=49

7 Factors for Success in Great Britain  exploration and colonialism  vast amounts of raw material and new markets of consumers  power of the sea  can bring raw materials to GB and send finished product out  political stability  when at peace in the homeland, general daily living thrives, including commerce.  no battles to fight=more money to spend

8 Factors for Success in Great Britain  government support  Great Britain had laws that favored business  this helped Great Britain compete against other nations  growth of private investment  new businesses need investors to get the start up money to begin  today = “research and development”

9 Agricultural Factors- R & D  1701  Jethro Tull invented seed drill  landowners bought up small farms and consolidated them in the enclosure movement  better breeding methods for animals and varieties of food crops were developed, as well  increasing food supply meant the population could increase too

10 Factors of Production: Land  Great Britain had great natural resources  coal for fuel  iron for steel & machinery  waterways (rivers & canals) to generate power and transport raw materials and goods

11

12 Factors of Production: Labor  Great Britain’s population grew because of greater food supply  enclosure movement took land away from small farmers  resulted in surplus of available workers

13 Factors of Production: Capital  capital is the money or property a business needs to stay in business  Wealthy business people invested capital to make a profit and not share with workers  capital can be money, machines, or people  people who specialized in one area had abilities and skills to their advantages  Human Capital

14 A Revolution in Textiles  a cottage industry is an occupation in which you make a craft and it is done in your home  making cloth had been a cottage industry  cloth was made mostly with wool

15 A New Way of Making Cloth  cloth was now made from wool and cotton  more sheep could be raised due to the enclosure movement  cotton came to Great Britain from the colonies  new inventions helped the process of cloth making

16 Cotton Gin  invented by Eli Whitney  removed seeds from raw cotton

17 Spinning Jenny -1764  invented by James Hargreaves  spun multiple threads at one time  threads were still thick and broke easily

18 Spinning Frame  invented by Richard Arkwright  similar to the spinning jenny  spun stronger, thinner threads

19 “Flying Shuttle” - 1733  invented by John Kay  pushed thread back and forth on loom automatically  had been done by the weaver pushing the shuttle back and forth  allowed for looms to be wider than arm’s width  the flying shuttle doubled the speed at which a worker could do the job  many workers lost their jobs and Kay fled to France to die in poverty

20 Power Loom  invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785  automated the weaving process

21 Cloth Making Outside the Home  new inventions to speed up the cloth making process were big machines  machines needed a special place to house them  cloth now made in FACTORIES  Factories were placed next to river for water power

22 Example of an water powered mill. Water turned the wheel which provide the power to drive the new machines.

23 Steam Powers the Revolution  steam is created when water is heated to the point of vaporizing  water vapors expand when hot  steam engines were invented in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen

24 Newcomen Steam Engine

25 Development of the Steam Engine  James Watt innovated Newcomen’s steam engine to be more efficient  Watt’s engine was better suited for factories  1802  Richard Trevithick put a steam engine in first locomotive  1807  Robert Fulton developed the first steamship

26 The Impact of the Railroad

27 Development of the Steam Engine  WHAT IS AN ADVANTAGE OF STEAM POWER OVER WATER POWER FOR USE IN FACTORIES?  a factory doesn’t have to be near a waterway, meaning factories could also be nearer cities and/or ports where finished product had to end up  steam-powered trains made it possible to ship finished goods faster  steamships replaced sailing ships on the open sea and horse-drawn barges in canals

28 Coal for British Steam Engines Lumber was scarce due to deforestation for farming  coal mining industry in northern and western England grew  by 1800, Great Britain produced 80% of Europe’s coal  mining was dangerous  explosions  coal dust  collapsing shafts  hard labor

29 Young Coal Miners

30 Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”

31 What’s Happening  What are the three factors of production that we discussed?  What is an example of each of these factors that Great Britain had?  How did the early inventions help the textile industry change from a cottage industry to an industry performed in factories?

32 Industrialization Spreads  Industry and the West  Individual freedom becomes significant force in society  People with freedoms compete with one another for wealth and fame  Competition is deemed good for all  Westerners race to find new lands for new markets and to exploit for Raw materials

33 Industry comes to America  Britain outlawed export of certain machines and forbade skill craftsman from leaving country  WHY?  Great Britain had a huge head start in revolution

34 Industry comes to America  Samuel Slater  Skilled young millworker, escapes GB disguised as a farmer and heads to America  He had memorized the working of the water frame and reproduced it in America  Built 1 st mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island  Father of American Industry

35 Industry comes to America  Frances Cabot Lowell  First all in one mill  40 multi story brick buildings  Used water fall to run machinery  6 miles of canals  Hired 10,000 single girls from near by farms to run  Provided good wages and clean housing

36 Lowell System

37 Lowell Girls

38 Industry spreads to Europe  William Cockerill brought industry to Central Europe  After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, French government would financial support industry  1848 French would be an industrial power house  Germany had no central government to support Industry  Many small German states built railroads  1850 treaties that barred German states from trading were dropped

39 Industry in Asia  Japan joined revolution very late  1868 Meiji Government modernized Japan’s economy  A few decades later Japan would be one of the world’s industrial leaders

40 GROG 21.1 -5 points Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by showing how various factors helped start the Industrial Revolution.

41 Factories and Workers Chapter 21 Sec 2 Pages 640-645

42 Bell Ringer 21.2  Imagine that you are a highly skilled millworker living in Great Britain in about 1800. Write an outline for the main points you would make to government officials to persuade them that you should be allowed to go to the United States to start a textile business.

43 Production before Factories  Cottage factories  Wool delivered right to cottage  Product went from raw material to Finished product under 1 roof  Benefits  Controlled own schedule Could work or rest depending on family needs  Controlled quality Need more $$ then work faster Work slower and produce better quality

44 Production before Factories  Cottage Industry  Problems  Fire or flood could cause a financial hardship  All skill took a long time to master  A lot of physical strength need to run machines  Adults only  Parents fell ill or died= financial hardship for family

45 Working in a factory  Mass production- Manufacturing large number of identical parts  Cheaper products  More money in peoples pockets  More goods available to the people  Assemble line- Product moves from person to person, who each performs one step.  Very easy to learn and perform  To easy for men, would been seen as women/ children's work  Boys and girls would work at age of 6

46 Wages Many families fleeing countryside would work in factories (enclosure movement) A large number of people willing to work, means low wages Children and women were paid less than men

47 long hours (12-16 hours) / six days a week

48 no safety precautions - no compensation for injury

49 unhealthy environment Noise, lack of ventilation, poor sanitation

50 Impact of Industrialization Changed patterns of life urbanization-movement of people from rural areas to cities Industry moved from home to city city populations expand dramatically

51 Factory towns  Towns first popped up along water sources  With the invention of steam power factories popped up near coal mines  Thick soot cover these towns  Turning day into night

52 Industrial Staffordshire area in NW England known as black county due to high pollution of coal dust

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54 Problems of Growing Cities Living Conditions poorly built tenements

55 - large families crowded into single room apartments

56 - poor water supplies inadequate sanitation

57 - disease and crime were constant problems

58 Cottage workers unrest  Factories are the new way, but Cottage Industry is still alive- barely  Cottage Industries could not produce or sell as cheaply as factories  Facing financial ruins they would turn to violence

59 British Government and Business  British Government did not see it as their job to regulate business  If they help the people to much they would get lazy and not work as hard

60 Luddites  Cottage workers who opposed factories putting cottages out of work  Burned and smashed factory machines  Did not hurt people  Those who were caught were hung by owners  Luddite movement ended quickly

61 Workers Organize First unions were trade unions were workers who had skills and would be difficult to replace. They would organize strikes to force improvement of working conditions

62 Early attempts by workers to organize and unionize met with resistance - British government outlawed labor unions

63 Demands for Change Governments begin to investigate working conditions. British Parliament enacts laws limiting child labor and limiting hours in a work day.

64 Upstairs/Downstairs Social/Economics

65 A New Class of Workers  Wealthy business people to invest  Mid-level (Middle Class) employees to run factory and supervise  This would be a fast growing group  Low-level employees to run machines

66 GROG 21.2 – 5 points fill in the interactive graphic organizer by analyzing the effects of the factory system to answer the question, "Who do you think benefited the most and least from the changes?".

67 Chapter 21 Sec 3 New Ideas in a Society Page 646-651

68 IV. New Currents of Thought A. Economics 1. Laissez-Faire Economics laissez faire – economic theory opposed any attempt by the government to interfere with the natural laws governing economics. -

69 b. Adam Smith - Scottish economist who wrote “The Wealth of Nations" -urged government to let free enterprise operate on its own. - believed everyone would benefit

70 Thomas Malthus- “Essay on the Principles of Population" - social problem of poverty was due to population growth. - any government attempt to correct problems would only making conditions for the poor worse

71 David Ricardo - Iron Law of Wages - stated wages and prices go through cycles

72 Socialism - a system in which the workers or government owned and controlled the means of production. *means of production - i.) the means of production would be operated for the benefit of all people

73 Communism (Scientific Socialism) Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels publish “The Communist Manifesto" - Claimed theories were based on a scientific study of history. - Believed economics shaped both social and political structures

74 History reveals a continuous struggle between two classes: - the "haves" (bourgeoisie " middle class") - They control the means of production - Through power and wealth shape social and political structures.

75 The have nots - the proletariat or working class They lack the wealth of the haves They produce the wealth through their labor.

76 - Marx's predictions: 1. conditions of the workers will continue to decline 2. proletariat will revolt and take control of the means of production

77 3. proletariat will destroy the ruling class and setup classless society 4. wealth and power would be shared equally by all.

78 - Failing of Marx's theories 1. assumed the condition of the workers would continue to get worse over time. 2. the conditions of the workers actually improved in many ways and workers were unwilling to overthrow the system.

79 Scientific Theories - Charles Darwin published “On the Origin of Species" - presented a theory of evolution based on natural selection


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