Presentation on theme: "A New Kind of Revolution Ch 21 Sec 1 Pages"— Presentation transcript:
1 A New Kind of Revolution Ch 21 Sec 1 Pages 633-639
2 A couple of things to Answer What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution?and How did the Industrial Revolution impact the world?
3 A couple of things to Answer Explain how the Industrial Revolution caused economic, cultural, and political changes around the world. ORSummarize the origin and spread of the Industrial Revolution
4 What you will learnIn the 1700s, conditions in Great Britain led to the rapid growth of the textile industry, which in turn led to huge changes in many other industries.
5 Revolution in Great Britain 1700s = change in technologyenergy source changed from human & animal power to machineryIndustrial Revolution occurred when use of power-driven machinery was developedthis started in Great BritainWHAT PROVIDED THE ENERGY FOR WORKING BEFORE MACHINES?(different phrasing) WHO OR WHAT DID THE WORK?possible answer: humans and animals
6 Crash CourseCoal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History #32 - YouTube#at=49
7 Factors for Success in Great Britain exploration and colonialismvast amounts of raw material and new markets of consumerspower of the seacan bring raw materials to GB and send finished product outpolitical stabilitywhen at peace in the homeland, general daily living thrives, including commerce.no battles to fight=more money to spendexploration and colonialismHOW COULD EXPLORATION AND COLONIALISM HELP GREAT BRITAIN INDUSTRIALIZE?possible answer: vast amounts of raw material and new markets of consumerspower of the seaHOW WOULD HAVING A GOOD CONTROL OF THE SEA HELP GREAT BRITAIN?(different phrasing) HOW WERE RAW MATERIALS AND GOODS TRANSPORTED?possible answer: can bring raw materials to GB and send finished product out
8 Factors for Success in Great Britain government supportGreat Britain had laws that favored businessthis helped Great Britain compete against other nationsgrowth of private investmentnew businesses need investors to get the start up money to begintoday = “research and development”8
9 Agricultural Factors- R & D 1701 Jethro Tull invented seed drilllandowners bought up small farms and consolidated them in the enclosure movementbetter breeding methods for animals and varieties of food crops were developed, as wellincreasing food supplymeant the populationcould increase tooseed drill = planted grain at even intervalsmuch more efficientenclosure movementthe land bought up was not all farmed some land was converted into large pastures for the grazing of animals, such as sheepWHAT ABOUT THE SMALL FARMERS? WHAT HAPPENED TO THEM?possible answer: they moved to the citiesIF THEIR LAND WAS BOUGHT UP, WHERE DID THEY GO?
10 Factors of Production: Land Great Britain had great natural resourcescoal for fueliron for steel & machinerywaterways (rivers & canals) to generate power and transport raw materials and goodsland = all of a place’s natural resources
11 map on left shows coal fields and iron ore deposits map on right shows rivers that could be use for transporting and canalsNOTICE HOW THE CANALS ARE NEAR THE COAL FIELDS AND IRON ORE DEPOSITSmid 1700s England had about 1,000 miles of canalsBy 1800 4,000 miles of canalsGreat Britain also had deepwater harbors to create ports for long-distance shipping
12 Factors of Production: Labor Great Britain’s population grew because of greater food supplyenclosure movement took land away from small farmersresulted in surplus of available workerspeople who lost their farmland were often entire families, who then moved to the cities to work in industry
13 Factors of Production: Capital capital is the money or property a business needs to stay in businessWealthy business people invested capital to make a profit and not share with workerscapital can be money, machines, or peoplepeople who specialized in one area had abilities and skills to their advantagesHuman Capitalpeople like Jethro Tull and other inventors were among this group of specialized people
14 A Revolution in Textiles a cottage industry is an occupation in which you make a craft and it is done in your homemaking cloth had been a cottage industrycloth was made mostly with woolHow was cloth made before machines did it?possible answer: people did it at homeWhat happened to these skilled people when machines started taking their jobs?possible answer: out of work, went to the cities to get jobs in the new factories
15 A New Way of Making Cloth cloth was now made from wool and cottonmore sheep could be raised due to the enclosure movementcotton came to Great Britain from the coloniesnew inventions helped the process of cloth makingWHERE DID THE COTTON COME FROM?possible answer: colonies in India and North AmericaWHO HARVESTED THE COTTON?possible answer: slaves- increased slavery in US (but that is a topic that has been discussed already with the slave trade and is better covered in US history)
16 Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney removed seeds from raw cotton invented by Whitney in 1793HOW WERE THE SEEDS REMOVED BEFORE THE COTTON GIN?possible answer: by hand
17 Spinning Jenny -1764 invented by James Hargreaves spun multiple threads at one timethreads were still thick and broke easily
18 Spinning Frame invented by Richard Arkwright similar to the spinning jennyspun stronger, thinner threadsinvented in 1768the spinning frame spun cotton fiber into threads
19 “Flying Shuttle” - 1733 invented by John Kay pushed thread back and forth on loom automaticallyhad been done by the weaver pushing the shuttle back and forthallowed for looms to be wider than arm’s widththe flying shuttle doubled the speed at which a worker could do the jobmany workers lost their jobs and Kay fled to France to die in poverty
20 Power Loom invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 automated the weaving processwas invented because faster spinning machines created demand for faster weaving machinesmuch larger and faster than any previous weaving system
21 Cloth Making Outside the Home new inventions to speed up the cloth making process were big machinesmachines needed a special place to house themcloth now made in FACTORIESFactories wereplaced next toriver for waterpowerWHERE WOULD ALL OF THESE NEW MACHINES TO MAKE CLOTH GO?possible answer: factoriesin 1770, England produced about 50,000 bolts of clothby 1800, it had increased to 400,000 bolts
22 Example of an water powered mill. Water turned the wheel which provide the power to drive the new machines.
23 Steam Powers the Revolution steam is created when water is heated to the point of vaporizingwater vapors expand when hotsteam engines were invented in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen
25 Development of the Steam Engine James Watt innovated Newcomen’s steam engine to be more efficientWatt’s engine was better suited for factories1802 Richard Trevithick put a steam engine in first locomotive1807 Robert Fulton developed the first steamship
27 Development of the Steam Engine WHAT IS AN ADVANTAGE OF STEAM POWER OVER WATER POWER FOR USE IN FACTORIES?a factory doesn’t have to be near a waterway, meaning factories could also be nearer cities and/or ports where finished product had to end upsteam-powered trains made it possible to ship finished goods fastersteamships replaced sailing ships on the open sea and horse-drawn barges in canals
28 Coal for British Steam Engines Lumber was scarce due to deforestation for farmingcoal mining industry in northern and western England grewby 1800, Great Britain produced 80% of Europe’s coalmining was dangerousexplosionscoal dustcollapsing shaftshard labor
29 Young Coal Minerschildren were hired to slip down narrow shafts and pick and haul coal
30 Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”their lives were hard and many became “crooked and deformed”
31 What’s HappeningWhat are the three factors of production that we discussed?What is an example of each of these factors that Great Britain had?How did the early inventions help the textile industry change from a cottage industry to an industry performed in factories?
32 Industrialization Spreads Industry and the WestIndividual freedom becomes significant force in societyPeople with freedoms compete with one another for wealth and fameCompetition is deemed good for allWesterners race to find new lands for new markets and to exploit for Raw materials
33 Industry comes to America Britain outlawed export of certain machines and forbade skill craftsman from leaving countryWHY?Great Britain had a huge head start in revolution
34 Industry comes to America Samuel SlaterSkilled young millworker, escapes GB disguised as a farmer and heads to AmericaHe had memorized the working of the water frame and reproduced it in AmericaBuilt 1st mill in Pawtucket, Rhode IslandFather of American Industry
35 Industry comes to America Frances Cabot LowellFirst all in one mill40 multi story brick buildingsUsed water fall to run machinery6 miles of canalsHired 10,000 single girls from near by farms to runProvided good wages and clean housing
38 Industry spreads to Europe William Cockerill brought industry to Central EuropeAfter Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, French government would financial support industry1848 French would be an industrial power houseGermany had no central government to support IndustryMany small German states built railroads1850 treaties that barred German states from trading were dropped
39 Industry in Asia Japan joined revolution very late 1868 Meiji Government modernized Japan’s economyA few decades later Japan would be one of the world’s industrial leaders
40 GROG points Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by showing how various factors helped start the Industrial Revolution.
42 Bell Ringer 21.2Imagine that you are a highly skilled millworker living in Great Britain in about Write an outline for the main points you would make to government officials to persuade them that you should be allowed to go to the United States to start a textile business.
43 Production before Factories Cottage factoriesWool delivered right to cottageProduct went from raw material to Finished product under 1 roofBenefitsControlled own scheduleCould work or rest depending on family needsControlled qualityNeed more $$ then work fasterWork slower and produce better quality
44 Production before Factories Cottage IndustryProblemsFire or flood could cause a financial hardshipAll skill took a long time to masterA lot of physical strength need to run machinesAdults onlyParents fell ill or died= financial hardship for family
45 Working in a factoryMass production- Manufacturing large number of identical partsCheaper productsMore money in peoples pocketsMore goods available to the peopleAssemble line- Product moves from person to person, who each performs one step.Very easy to learn and performTo easy for men, would been seen as women/ children's workBoys and girls would work at age of 6Factories preferred to hire women and children
46 Wages Many families fleeing countryside would work in factories (enclosure movement)A large number of people willing to work,means low wagesChildren and women were paid less than men
58 Cottage workers unrest Factories are the new way, but Cottage Industry is still alive- barelyCottage Industries could not produce or sell as cheaply as factoriesFacing financial ruins they would turn to violence
59 British Government and Business British Government did not see it as their job to regulate businessIf they help the people to much they would get lazy and not work as hard
60 LudditesCottage workers who opposed factories putting cottages out of workBurned and smashed factory machinesDid not hurt peopleThose who were caught were hung by ownersLuddite movement ended quickly
61 Workers OrganizeFirst unions were trade unions were workers who had skills and would be difficult to replace.They would organize strikes to force improvement of working conditions
62 Early attempts by workers to organize and unionize met with resistance - British government outlawed labor unions
63 Demands for ChangeGovernments begin to investigate working conditions.British Parliament enacts laws limiting child labor and limiting hours in a work day .
65 A New Class of Workers Wealthy business people to invest Mid-level (Middle Class) employees to run factory and superviseThis would be a fast growing groupLow-level employees to run machines
66 GROG 21.2 – 5 points fill in the interactive graphic organizer by analyzing the effects of the factory system to answer the question, "Who do you think benefited the most and least from the changes?".
67 New Ideas in a Society Page 646-651 Chapter 21 Sec 3New Ideas in a SocietyPage
68 - IV. New Currents of Thought A. Economics 1. Laissez-Faire Economics laissez faire – economic theory opposed any attempt by the government to interfere with the natural laws governing economics.
69 b. Adam Smith - Scottish economist who wrote “The Wealth of Nations" urged government to let free enterprise operate on its own.- believed everyone would benefit
70 Thomas Malthus- “Essay on the Principles of Population" - social problem of poverty was due to population growth.- any government attempt to correct problems would only making conditions for the poor worse
71 David Ricardo - Iron Law of Wages - stated wages and prices go through cycles
72 Socialism - a system in which. the workers or government Socialism - a system in which the workers or government owned and controlled the means of production.*means of production -i.) the means of production would be operated for the benefit of all people
73 Communism (Scientific Socialism) Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels publish “The Communist Manifesto"- Claimed theories were based on a scientific study of history.- Believed economics shaped both social and political structures
74 History reveals a continuous struggle between two classes: - the "haves" (bourgeoisie " middle class")They control the means of productionThrough power and wealth shape social and political structures.
75 The have nots - the proletariat or working class They lack the wealth of the havesThey produce the wealth through their labor.
76 - Marx's predictions:conditions of the workers will continue to declineproletariat will revolt and take control of the means of production
77 3. proletariat will. destroy the. ruling class and setup 3. proletariat will destroy the ruling class and setup classless society4. wealth and power would be shared equally by all.
78 - Failing of Marx's theories 1. assumed the condition of the workers would continue to get worse over time.2. the conditions of the workers actually improved in many ways and workers were unwilling to overthrow the system.
79 Scientific Theories- Charles Darwin published “On the Origin of Species"presented a theory of evolution based on natural selection