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+ The Industrial Revolution World Civilizations. + The Industrial Revolution What is the Industrial Revolution? Where and when did it first occur? A1:

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Presentation on theme: "+ The Industrial Revolution World Civilizations. + The Industrial Revolution What is the Industrial Revolution? Where and when did it first occur? A1:"— Presentation transcript:

1 + The Industrial Revolution World Civilizations

2 + The Industrial Revolution What is the Industrial Revolution? Where and when did it first occur? A1: The use of machine labor, instead of human/animal labor, to create products A2: England (Great Britain)

3 + The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Why England? Technology Economic Aspects Access to Raw Materials Political Aspects Factors of Production Land Labor

4 + Agriculture in Great Britain at the Start of the Industrial Revolution Jethro Tull Enclosure Movement Experimentation with New Crops

5 + Textile Production in England First  Cottage Industry After Industrialization: Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) Spinning Frame (Richard Arkwright) Flying Shuttle Use of Factories

6 + Textile Factory Workers in England

7 + How Did the Use of Steam Influence the Industrial Revolution? Steam Engine (James Watt) Decrease Dependence on Water Power Move Mills/Factories away from water Railroads Steamboats Emphasis on Coal Production Increased Urbanization

8 + Consequences of Using Steam for Transportation

9 + Coal in the Industrial Revolution Expansion of Coal Mines Increased Urbanization Problems in Mines?

10 +

11 + Why Did the West Industrialize First? Focus on Individual Freedoms Increased Competition Rewards of Wealth and Fame

12 + The Spread of the Industrial Revolution United States France Germany Japan Comparisons to England US, France, Japan, and England have government support of IR Germany does not receive gov’t support All focus on production of textiles first

13 + Factories and Workers in the Industrial Revolution

14 + Pre-Industrial Production Cottage Industries Several-Step Process to Create and Sell Goods Merchant delivers raw materials Weavers create wool into finished product by hand Merchant picks up finished good and sells it at market Benefits of the Cottage Industries Workers create own schedule Ability to own small businesses and make money Focus on family b/c workshop is in the home

15 + Problems of Cottage Industries Environmental Dangers (fire/floods) could take out entire business Needed certain skills for producing textiles, which took time to learn Children could not work in cottage industries

16 + The Shift to Industrial Production Cottage Industries are eliminated in Industrial Revolution Factories move to separate locations, away from the home Working in a Factory: Easier to learn one task than many Children able to learn tasks and work in factories Ability for families to make more money Dangers: Physical harm Long-work days (12+ hours for all workers) Poor sanitation and ventilation

17 + Increasing Urbanization During Industrial Revolution As more factories are built, cities in England begin to grow Main cities: London, Manchester, Liverpool Life in Factory Towns: Cities grow around factories or coal mines Some companies provide housing and food Dangerous b/c of pollution and poor sanitation

18 + Social Changes of the Early Industrial Revolution Three main types of workers: People to own the businesses (owners) People to run the businesses (managers) People to run the machines (workers) Women gain more opportunities for jobs outside the home Growth of the Middle Class – those who did not own the factories, but also did not do the basic work in them Some people resist the influence of the IR Some still want to use cottage industries Luddites: people who opposed machines and new technology

19 + Factories and Mass Production Mass Production: the system of manufacturing large numbers of identical items Leads to the development of the Assembly line in the United states Advantages: Increase in production for less cost Increases profits Disadvantages: Less skilled jobs Workers are easily replaced

20 + Political Problems in the Early Industrial Revolution British government tries to stay out of problems in the factories Gov’t refused to pass laws regulating labor, child labor, or safe working conditions at first Causes people to form labor unions: organizations representing workers interests Strike (stop work) to bring about change Forces British gov’t to make changes eventually

21 + New Ideas of the Industrial Revolution & Industrailization’s effects

22 + New Economic Ideas The major economic idea of the Industrial Revolution was Capitalism Discussed by economist Adam Smith Main Ideas: Governments should not be involved in business or economy “Laissez-faire” (Let them Be)

23 + Other Economic Ideas Emerge: Socialism: society or government should own property and control industry Communism: discussed by Karl Marx in The Communist Manifesto Government owns all means of production and controls economic planning to ensure equal treatment and opportunities

24 + Social Effects of Industrial Revolution Effects on Women: Women often found jobs in factories or as domestic workers Earned low wages Some women start to get some education Women in the middle-classes could get professional jobs (teachers/nurses) Many believed women should remain in the private sphere (the home) and remain outside of the public sphere (workplace)

25 + Other Social and Economic Impacts Countries that industrialized were seen as more powerful than those who did not Industrialization helped increase military strength Allowed strong countries to take over weaker ones  Imperialism Some countries liked the United States see an increase in immigration Improvements in Standard of Living: level of material comfort Improves over time Increase in leisure time

26 + Effects of Industrialization: Non- economic responses… Utopianism: Machines create perfect society Luddism: Rejecting the use of machines Imperialism: Conquering foreign lands (for resources) Militarism: Focus on military might Nationalism: Love of one’s nation

27 + Factory Life Hired mostly children/women (cheaper) Children as young as 7 worked Wanted children because they’re small enough to get into and repair machines hour workdays/6 days a week High rate of injury/death Factory owners became very wealthy

28 + Before Ind. Rev.After Ind. Rev. Ppl lived on farms (rural community life) Hand-crafted goods Power supplied by humans/animals No pollution Business is largely controlled by the society/community Ppl moved to cities (urban community life) Machine produced goods Steam and water power machines Later fossil fuels, electricity will power machines Cities dirty/polluted (no sewers, no trash-service)


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