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2 Focus Question What were the basic features of the new industrial system created by the industrial revolution? What effects did the new system have on urban life, social classes, family life and standards of living?

3 The Beginnings of Modernization Industrial production. – Coal and steam replaced wind and water as new sources of energy – New machines. – new ways of organizing human labor – factories replaced workshops and home workrooms Shift from agriculture & handicraft based economy to manufacturing

4 Impact of Industrialization Migration from rural living into urban centers Creation of wealthy industrial middle class Huge working industrial class Altered how people related to nature Created an environmental crisis that in the 20th C was finally recognized as a danger to human existence

5 Industrial Revolution: Factors Factors that contributed to Great Britain’s Industrial revolution, 1750 Food Supply & population boom – Improvements in agricultural practices/production Labor supply pool of surplus (exploitable) labor Capital investment ready supply of capital to invest in machines and factories Profits gained from trade and the cottage industry Effective central bank Well developed flexible credit facilities Values and Ideology Profit motive by individuals

6 Industrial Revolution: Factors Ample supply of mineral resources: coal and iron ore needed in the manufacturing process Government support Parliament contributed to the favorable business climate passed laws that protected private property Wealth and markets generated from colonies or Common Wealth British exports quadrupled between 1660 and 1760

7 The Steam Engine, Steve Watt (1760) Technological advances transformed industries & Ushered in factory system © Oxford Science Archive/HIP/Art Resource, NY

8 Railroad Line from Liverpool to Manchester © Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images

9 The Industrial Factory The Factory created a new labor system – Laborers worked regular hours and in shifts to keep the machines producing at a steady rate Created a system of work discipline – Employees became accustomed to working regular hours and overtime work load increased compared to their rural agricultural life style

10 British Cotton Factory, 1851 new system of discipline that forced them to work regular hours under close supervision. © CORBIS

11 The Spread of Industrialization: on the Continent IN 1815 Belgium, France and German States were still largely agrarian. Obstacles to Industrialization – lack of good roads – problems with river transit – customs barriers along state boundaries increased in costs and prices of goods – lack of technical knowledge Borrowed British techniques and practices Gradually the continent achieved technological independence as local people learned all the skills their British teachers had to offer

12 The Industrialization of Europe by 1850

13 The Spread of Industrialization United States

14 Focus Questions What marked the increasing industrialization in the United States economy between 1815 – 1860? How and why did inequalities increase among the rich, the middle class and the working class?

15 Identifications Transportation, Market & Industrial Revolutions Immigration and Scapegoat Status of artisan Rhode Island and Waltham System Cult of Domesticity Purity Crusade Universal White Male suffrage 2 nd Great Awakening

16 American Demography 1800 America – 6 of 7 workers were farmers – No city exceeded 100,000 people 1860 America – Population sextupled to 30 million people – 9 cities exceeded 100,000 people – 50% of American workers were farmers

17 Changes that allowed for the Industrial Revolution Transportation Revolution – Improvements in transportation made that transformation possible Federal, state and corporate investments in transportation improvements Roads, Canals, Railroads Market Revolution – Transition from domestic markets to for distant markets Industrial Revolution – Domestic hand labor to machine and factory output Immigration – Cheap and exploitable labor

18 Immigration Political turmoil and Famine brought Massive immigration – Irish Potato Famine Million (30% of Ireland’s population) – German immigration Million Provided Cheap/Exploitable Labor Used to scapegoat political, economic & social issues

19 “The Bog Trotters”

20 The Poor House from Galway “The Irish fill our prisons, our poor houses, scratch a convict or a pauper, and the chances are that you tickle the skin of an Irish Catholic. Putting them on a boat and sending them home would end crime in this country”

21 The Great Fear of the Period That Uncle Sam is Swallowed by Foreigners The Problem Solved

22 Thomas Nast Cartoon, 1870 Expresses the worry that the Irish Catholics threatened American Freedom

23 Early Industry The northeast led Americans industrial revolution – Household and small workshop production – Putting-out system Local merchants furnished or put out raw materials to rural households and paid at a piece rate for the labor that converted those raw materials into manufacture products. The supplying merchant then marketed and sold these goods.

24 Artisan Status Status of Artisan: – Owned tools of production – Owned shops – Managed time and produce – skilled workers – Independence – prestige

25 Shoe Makers

26 Industrial Espionage Slater’s Rhode Island System – Water powered spinning machine – Richard Arkwright (inventor) – Samuel Slater Imported the plans to Patuxet, Rhode Island – The Rhode Island System The countryside factory towns Labor of Farmer’s daughters Mill Villages

27 Waltham System Lowell’s Waltham System Machines that turned raw cotton into finished cloth Francis Cabot Lowell Toured factories in England in 1811 – Boston Associates Co Fully mechanized By the 1830s - Unskilled, female labor

28 Mill Girl

29 Middlesex Company Woolen Mills 1848

30 Urban Industry Industrial Revolution and the Widening gap between the rich and the poor – By 1835 cities were serving commercial agriculture and factory towns that produced for largely rural domestic market. Creation of the Urban working class – In the cities there was little concern for creating a classless industrial society.

31 Stratification of Class Hierarchy The richest men – importers and exporters and took control of banks and insurance companies and made great fortunes in urban real estate Growing middle class – Commercial Class Wholesale and retail merchants, lawyers, salesmen, auctioneers, bookkeepers and accountants clerks on the bottom creating a white-collar class to cater to the new emerging consumer society.

32 Middle Class Ideal Consumer goods  Symbols of their middle class status Notions of gentility  distinction between manual and non manual work

33 “The Hands” Producers of consumer goods The “hands” Growth in Demand Growth in Working class – Shoemaking, tailoring and the building trade were divided into skilled and semiskilled segments and farmed out to subcontractors who could turn a profit by cutting labor costs

34 Rising Standard of Living After 1815 – per capita income doubled – living standards rose – Houses: larger, better furnished, heated. – Food: more plentiful and varied The cost: – Half of all adult white males without land – wealth had become more concentrated. In 1800 the richest 10 percent of Americans owned 40-50% of the national wealth, by the 1850s they owned 70%. In the cities they owned over 80%.

35 Evangelical Crusades Early 19 th C ministers bolstered doctrine of separate spheres – Clerical endorsement of female moral superiority in exchange for women’s activism Decline of clerical authority in society Opposed forces that seemed to act against women’s interests – Materialism – Intemperance – Licentiousness

36 Redefinition of female character Appropriate to elevated status – Home idealized as bastion of feminine values – Piety, morality, affection, self-sacrifice – Iconography of Motherhood – Elevated importance & significance of the home

37 Cult of Domesticity Seperation of “work” and “home” Biological difference A construct that determined separate social roles for men and women. – Men: strong, aggressive and ambitious, intelligent Place in business and politics. – Women: Kind, pure, emotional, moral Place to preserve religion and morality in the home and family

38 Purity Crusade Traditionally: both men and women wee sexual beings, women weaker willed, lustful and licentious and insatiable Purity Crusade: women lacked sexual feeling, lust and carnality became a part of men’s sphere – Etiquette manuals counseled to deter male advances

39 Professional Medicine & Women’s Sexuality Women were Asexual beings – Defined by their sex & sexual roles, yet did not desire it – Dr Alcott, “Women, as is well known, in a natural state…seldom if ever makes any of those advances, which clearly indicates sexual desire and for this very plain reason, she does not feel them.” – Only “low” women suffered from the indignity of sexual desire Long periods of abstinence proper Masturbation damaged future offspring, and caused “mania” and “idiocy” on the guilty party

40 Lowered Standard of Living First Slums appeared in the mid 1800s – Huge influx of immigrants and creation of exploitable labor force – Overcrowded Housing – Contaminated water supplies – Lack of Sewage – Disease and high mortality rates Cholera and Typhus

41 Five Points District

42 Limiting the Spread of Industrialization to the Rest of the World Deliberate policy of preventing the growth of mechanized industry. – India : one of the worlds greatest exporters of cotton cloth produced by hand labor. under the control of the British East Indian Company. British textiles displaced thousands of Indian Spinners and handloom weavers

43 Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution Population Growth and Urbanization Rapid population growth 1850 European population 266 million Rapid urbanization 50% of British population lived in cities Miserable living conditions Tenement housing, 5 or 6 to a bed Lack of sewage or sanitation Coal blackened towns and cities Deaths outnumbered births

44 Social Impact: Industrial Middle Class People who constructed factories, purchased machines, established markets – Profit incentive – Value in the accumulation of surplus of wealth Sought to reduce disparity between themselves and the landed elite Separate themselves from the laboring classes below them

45 Industrial Working Class Proletariat – the factory workers and majority of the working class Wretched working conditions 12 – 16 hour work week/ 6 days a week ½ hour for lunch and dinner No job security No minimum wage Hot, dirty, dusty and unhealthy conditions

46 Women and Children in the Mines Men dug coal, while women and children hauled coal carts on rails to the lift Cave –ins, explosions, gas fumes Cramped tunnels, 4 ft high Ruined lungs and overall health © SSPL/The Image Works

47 Women and Children in the Mines Child Labor: exploited in textile mills and coals mines Paid 1/6 to 1/3 the wage of a man Women paid half that of a man or les © SSPL/The Image Works

48 Socialism Early 1800’s conditions of the slums, mines and factories – gave rise to social movements that demanded an improvement in workers conditions Early Socialism (Utopian Socialists) – product of intellectuals who believed in the equity of all people – Wanted to replace competition with cooperation in industry

49 Utopian Socialist Robert Owen, A British Cotton Manufacturer – believed that humans would show their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. New Lanark, Scotland, he transformed a squalid factory town into a flourishing healthy community New Harmony, Indiana, USA (1820s), failed

50 Trade Unions An organized movement for change – Goals to improve working conditions Gain decent wages Associations were formed by skilled workers Some conducted strikes to win gains for workers – Iron works – Coal miners

51 National Trade Union 1820s and 1830s: Movement to create a national trade union The Amalgamated Society of Engineers (1851) – Britain – Won generous unemployment benefits in return for small weekly payment

52 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity Focus Questions: What was the Second industrial revolution, and what effects did it have on economic and social life? What were he main ideas of Karl Marx, and what role did they play in politics and the union movement in the late 19 th C ad early twentieth centuries?

53 An Age of Progress ‘‘The most striking... evidence of progress during the reign is the ever increasing speed which the discoveries of physical science have forced into everyday life. Steam and electricity have conquered time and space to a greater extent during the last sixty years than all the preceding six hundred years witnessed.’’ Photo courtesy private collection

54 New Products after 1870 After 1870 the western world experienced a dynamic boom in material prosperity. – New industries – New sources of energy – The new goods of the second industrial revolution All this led people to believe that their material progress reflected human progress. The Second Industrial Revolution led many Europeans to believe that most human problems would be solved through scientific achievements.

55 New Industry transformed American from Agrarian nation to Industrial power – Technology – Steam engines – Electricity – Edison’s light bulb – Radio – streetcars and subways – Conveyor belts, cranes, machines, – Modern Corporations – Industrial labor – Exploitation – Unionization

56 Kitty Hawk, (1903) brothers Orville ad Wilbur Wright made the first flight in a fixed wing airplane 1919 first passenger air service established s 11

57 Technology Advancements in: – Railroads – Steel Mills – Telephone – Electricity: light & generator – Typewriter – Elevators and skyscrapers – Entertainment: phonographs and motion picture – Household items: refrigerators, washing machines – Internal Combustion engine leads to automobiles and first flight (Wright Brothers) (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved 6

58 New Patterns Germany replaced Britain as the industrial leader of Europe Europe divided into 2 economic zones – Advanced industrial core with high standard of living Great Britain, Belgium, France, Netherlands, Many Western part of Austro-Hungarian Empire, Northern Italy – Little industrialized Southern Italy, most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, Balkan Kingdoms and Russia

59 The Industrial Regions of Europe at the End of the Nineteenth Century steelmaking, electricity, petroleum, and chemicals spurred substantial economic growth and prosperity in western and central Europe sparked economic and political competition between Great Britain and Germany.

60 Spread of Industrialization Governments of Russia and Japan fostered industrialization – Russia, 1890s, Sergei Whitte, Minister of Finance Rail road construction Modern steel and coal industry – th largest producer of steel Half of the worlds oil production – Japan Financed industries, built RR, Universal education system based on science Key industries of tea, silk, armaments shipbuilding

61 Women and Work: New Job Opportunities Reality vs. Rhetoric of Ideal family and expectations of womanhood – Myth of domestic spheres – Reality of women needing employment to support families Only opportunity available was low wage work of labor part time in sweat shops

62 Women and Work: New Job Opportunities 2 nd industrial revolution opened the door to new jobs for women. – Service, white collar job the new stratified commercial class. – Increased demand for white collar workers at relatively low wages coupled with a shortage of male workers led employers to hire women Big Businesses, retail shops: Clerks, secretaries, file clerks, sales clerks

63 Women and Work: New Job Opportunities New opportunities – Expansion of Government services secretaries and telephone operators health and social services – Compulsory education necessitated more teachers – Development of modern hospital services opened the way for an increase in nurses Women remained limited in what careers they could pursue – lack of equal education

64 Organizing working classes After 1870 people began to organize – Conditions of labor class – Socialist political parties – Socialist labor unions 1848, Karl Marx & Fredreich Engels had developed a theory that explained social struggle, Communist Manifesto.

65 Marxism Marxist theory: – argued that history is a history of class struggle between the working people who depended on others the means of production, and the oppressors who owned the means of production and thus had the power to control government and society

66 Marxism The Bourgeoisie and the proletariat – predicted that eventually the two groups would break into open revolution For a while the proletariat would form a dictatorship in order to organized the means of production – the end result would be a classless society since classes themselves arose from economic difference that have been abolished. The state which he perceived as an instrument of bourgeois interests would whither away

67 ‘‘ Proletarians of the World, Unite’’ To improve their working and living conditions, many industrial workers, inspired by the ideas of Karl Marx, joined working-class or socialist parties. Pictured here is a socialist- sponsored poster that proclaims in German the closing words of The Communist Manifesto: ‘‘Proletarians of the World, Unite!’’ © Photo courtesy private collection

68 Socialist Parties Working class leaders after 1870 began to pick up on Marx’s theory. – The German Social Democratic Party, 1875 espoused revolutionary Marxist Rhetoric we organizing itself as a mass political party competing in elections for the Reichstag or lower house of parliament. By 1912 it became the largest party in Germany due to its work to improve conditions for the working class

69 Socialist Parties The Second International was an association of national socialist groups that would fight against capitalism world wide: – May Day or May 1 st – International labor holiday due to the associations coordinated actions

70 Revisionism & Trade Unions Marxist partied divided over the issue of revisionism. – Pure Marxist’s : believed in the imminent collapse of capitalism ad the need for socialist ownership of the means of production. – Revisionists: rejected revolutionary socialism and argued that workers must organize mass political parties and work together with other progressive elements to gain reform. With suffrage, could achieve their aims through democratic channels – Revolution through democratic means, not by revolution would achieve the desired goal o socialism

71 Reaction and Revolution: The Growth of Nationalism Focus Question: – What were the major ideas associated with conservatism, liberalism, and nationalism – What role did each ideology play in Europe between 1800 and 1870? – What were the causes of the revolutions of 1848, and why did these revolutions fail?

72 A meeting of the Congress of Vienna 1814 © Scala/Art Resource, NY After the defeat of Napoleon European rulers moved to restore much of the old order. Goal of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia final peace settlement after the Napoleonic wars.

73 Conservative Order The leader of the congress, Austrian Prime Minister Prince Klemen’s von Metternich claimed he was guided by the principle of legitimacy. – To reestablish peace and stability in Europe he considered it necessary to restore the legitimate monarchs ho would preserve traditional institutions. Had already been done in France

74 Conservative Order Conservatism: – favored obedience to political authority, – believed that organized religion was crucial to social order, – hated revolutionary upheavals, – unwilling to accept either liberal demands for civil liberties and representative of governments or the nationalistic aspirations generated by the French Revolutionary era.

75 Conservative Backlash The peace arrangements were the beginning of a conservative reaction determined to contain the liberal and nationalist forces unleashed by the French Revolution. This political philosophy of Conservatism – supported by hereditary monarchs, – government bureaucracies, – landowning aristocracies, – revived churches forces were dominant after 1815

76 Concert of Europe Method used by the great powers to maintain the new status quo Concert of Europe – Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and later France agreed to meet periodically in conference to take steps that would maintain the peace in Europe. adopted the principle of intervention, – asserting the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore the legitimate monarchs to their throne.

77 Europe After the Congress of Vienna, 1815 Monarchs were restored in France, Spain, and other states recently under Napoleon’s control, and much territory changed hands, often at the expense of small and weak states.

78 Forces for Change: Liberalism Liberalism – people should be from as much restraint as possible owed much to the enlightenment of the 18 th C. and the American and French revolutions Common set of beliefs: – protection of civil liberties, or the basic rights of the people, should be guaranteed b a written document

79 Civil Liberties Equality before the law Freedom of assembly, speech and press Freedom from arbitrary arrest Religious toleration for all Separation of church and state Demanded the right of peaceful opposition of government in and out of parliament making of laws by a representative assembly or legislature elected by qualified voters

80 Liberalism Many believed in a constitutional monarchy or constitutional state with limits on the powers of government – to prevent despotism and in written constitutions that would guaranteed these rights Liberals were not democrats: – they thought that the right to vote and hold office should be open only to men who owned property – Adopted by middle class men, Industrial bourgeoisie who favored voting rights for themselves share power with the land owning societies

81 Forces for Change: Nationalism Arose out an awareness of being part of a community that has common institutions, traditions, language, and customs. This community is called a nation, and the primary political loyalty of individuals would be a nation. – become a popular force for change following the French Revolution. – believed that each nationality should have its own government.

82 Nationalism German’s who were not united, wanted national unity in a German nation state with one central government. Subject peoples such as Hungarians wanted the right to establish their own autonomy rather than be subject to a German minority in the multinational Austrian empire.

83 Nationalism Threat to the existing political order. – A united Germany for example would upset the balance of power established at Vienna in 1815 – An independent Hungarian state would mean the breakup of the Austrian empire. European states were multinational, – conservatives tried to repress the radical threat of nationalism.

84 Revolution and Reform, Forces of Liberalism, nationalism and the second industrial revolution coalesced, in 1830 France – Bourbon Monarch Overthrown – created a limited constitutional monarchy under Louis Philippe Great Britain avoided upheaval by passing a Reform Bill 1832 – increased the numbers of male voters, primarily benefitting the upper middle class who favored liberal ideas

85 Revolution and Reform 1848 Nationalism was the crucial force in 3 other revolutions – Belgium: had been annexed to the Dutch Republic in 1815 to create a larger state to act as a barrier against French Aggression, – rebelled against the Dutch and established an independent constitutional monarch

86 Revolution and Reform 2 other revolutions failed: – Russian forces crushed the Poles attempt to liberate themselves from foreign domination, – Austrian troops intervened in Italy to uphold reactionary governments in a number of Italian states. Liberalism and Nationalism continued to grow Sparked new revolution

87 Revolutions of 1848 Revolution in Central Europe – Revolution in France was the spark for revolts in other countries – Internal problems provided kindling: industrial and agricultural depression, – refusal to extend suffrage

88 Central Europe Government of King Louis-Philippe refused to respond to needs of people – opposition grew and finally overthrew the monarchy of Feb 24, A group of moderate and radical republicans established a provisional government and called for the election by universal male suffrage of a “constitutional assembly” and would draw up a new constitution.

89 Constitutional Assembly New constitution was ratified on November 4, 1848 established the 2 nd Republic with a single legislature elected to 3 year terms by universal male suffrage to a 4 yr term. – In the elections for the presidency held in December 1848, Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of original, won and within 4 years would establish an authoritarian regime


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