Presentation on theme: "The Market Revolution North 1815-1860. Study Guide: Identifications Transportation, Market & Industrial Revolutions Putting Out system Immigration and."— Presentation transcript:
The Market Revolution North
Study Guide: Identifications Transportation, Market & Industrial Revolutions Putting Out system Immigration and Scapegoat Status of artisan Rhode Island and Waltham System Cult of Domesticity Purity Crusade Universal White Male suffrage 2 nd Great Awakening
Study Guide: Questions What marked the increasing industrialization in the US economy between 1815 – 1860? How and why did inequalities increase among the rich, the middle class and the working class?
Changes that allowed for the Industrial Revolution Transportation Revolution –Improvements in transportation made that transformation possible Federal, state and corporate investments in transportation improvements Roads, Canals, Railroads Market Revolution –Transition from domestic markets to for distant markets Industrial Revolution –Domestic hand labor to machine and factory output Immigration –Cheap and exploitable labor
Impact of Transportation Revolution Made the transition to the market society possible –Reduction in time and money it took to move heavy goods. –Growth of Cities Exports increased 6 fold and imports tripled Urban population grew –The north and west developed into a self- sustaining internal market Rural and Urban Market exchange
Immigration Political turmoil and Famine brought Massive immigration –Irish Potato Famine Million (30% of Ireland’s population) –German immigration Million Provided Cheap/Exploitable Labor Used to scapegoat political, economic & social issues
“The Bog Trotters”
The Poor House from Galway “The Irish fill our prisons, our poor houses, scratch a convict or a pauper, and the chances are that you tickle the skin of an Irish Catholic. Putting them on a boat and sending them home would end crime in this country”
The Great Fear of the Period That Uncle Sam is Swallowed by Foreigners The Problem Solved
Thomas Nast Cartoon, 1870 Expresses the worry that the Irish Catholics threatened American Freedom
Early Industry The northeast led Americans industrial revolution –Household and small workshop production –Putting-out system Local merchants furnished or put out raw materials to rural households and paid at a piece rate for the labor that converted those raw materials into manufacture products. The supplying merchant then marketed and sold these goods.
Artisan Status Status of Artisan: –Owned tools of production –Owned shops –Managed time and produce –skilled workers –Independence – prestige
Industrial Espionage Slater’s Rhode Island System –Water powered spinning machine Richard Arkwright had invented a water power machine that spun yarn and thread Samuel Slater - Memorized machine & 1790 Imported the plans from England to Patuxet, Rhode Island –The Rhode Island System The countryside factory towns Labor of Farmer’s daughters Mill Villages
Waltham System Lowell’s Waltham System Machines that turned raw cotton into finished cloth Francis Cabot Lowell Toured factories in England in 1811 –Boston Associates Co Fully mechanized By the 1830s - Unskilled, female labor
Daguerreotype of a young mill girl, c. 1850, Massachusetts
Middlesex Company Woolen mills 1848
Urban Industry Industrial Revolution and the Widening gap between the rich and the poor –By 1835 cities were serving commercial agriculture and factory towns that produced for largely rural domestic market. Creation of the Urban working class –In the cities there was little concern for creating a classless industrial society.
Class Hierarchy The richest men –importers and exporters and took control of banks and insurance companies and made great fortunes in urban real estate Growing middle class –Commercial Class Wholesale and retail merchants, lawyers, salesmen, auctioneers, bookkeepers and accountants clerks on the bottom creating a white-collar class to cater to the new emerging consumer society.
Middle Class Ideal Consumer goods Symbols of their middle class status Notions of gentility distinction between manual and non manual work
“The Hands” Producers of consumer goods The “hands” Growth in Demand Growth in Working class –Shoemaking, tailoring and the building trade were divided into skilled and semiskilled segments and farmed out to subcontractors who could turn a profit by cutting labor costs
Urban Industry New York: Ready made clothing trade –Cheap manufactured cloth –Cheap, female labor –Southern Markets “negro cottons” –Western Markets Dungarees & hickory shirts
Rising Standard of Living After 1815 –per capita income doubled –living standards rose –Houses: larger, better furnished, heated. –Food: more plentiful and varied The cost: –Half of all adult white males without land –wealth had become more concentrated. In 1800 the richest 10 percent of Americans owned % of the national wealth, by the 1850s they owned 70%. In the cities they owned over 80%.
Making of the middle Class Polar opposites: Separate Spheres Women’s sphere – a moral issue Democratization of “The Lady” –Class status –Staying at home, devoting self to family and developing feminine traits
Denial of status of lady Immigrant women Poor farm women Black women Poor native born women Factory women –Denial of status of lady also meant the denial of the status of “respectable” –Disrespecting non-ladies acceptable –Targets of exploitation
Redefinition of female character Appropriate to elevated status –Home idealized as bastion of feminine values –Piety, morality, affection, self-sacrifice –Iconography of Motherhood –Elevated importance & significance of the home
Evangelical Crusades Early 19 th C ministers bolstered doctrine of separate spheres –Clerical endorsement of female moral superiority in exchange for women’s activism Decline of clerical authority in society Opposed forces that seemed to act against women’s interests –Materialism –Intemperance –Licentiousness
Cult of Domesticity The separation of work and home –New sense of class- consciousness. Middle class fathers left for their jobs while mothers governed households. Reduction in size of families 1820s ministers and female writers elevated the family role of middle class women into a cult of domesticity
Cult of Domesticity –Biological difference determined separate social roles for men and women. –Men: strong, aggressive and ambitious, intelligent Place in business and politics. –Women: Kind, pure, emotional, moral Place to preserve religion and morality in the home and family
Purity Crusade Traditionally: both men and women wee sexual beings, women weaker willed, lustful and licentious and insatiable Purity Crusade: women lacked sexual feeling, lust and carnality became a part of men’s sphere –Etiquette manuals counseled to deter male advances
Women’s other institution Frances Trollope (England) 1830s “I have never seen a country where the religion had so strong a hold upon the women, or slighter upon the men” 3:2 converts women Women took an active role in religion Men continued to control the boundaries
Lowered Standard of Living First Slums appeared in the mid 1800s –Huge influx of immigrants and creation of exploitable labor force –Overcrowded Housing –Contaminated water supplies –Lack of Sewage –Disease and high mortality rates Cholera and Typhus
Professional Medicine & Women’s Sexuality Women were Asexual beings –Defined by their sex & sexual roles, yet did not desire it –Dr Alcott, “Women, as is well known, in a natural state…seldom if ever makes any of those advances, which clearly indicates sexual desire and for this very plain reason, she does not feel them.” –Only “low” women suffered from the indignity of sexual desire Long periods of abstinence proper Masturbation damaged future offspring, and caused “mania” and “idiocy” on the guilty party
Middle & Upper class invalids Chronic invalidism among women Middle class culture idealized female debility 1800’s doctors came close the defining femaleness as an illness itself
Five Points District
Twin Revolutions Universal White Male Suffrage Movement – Suffrage extended to white males ( ’s) By the 1800s race and gender began to replace wealth and status as the basis for defining the limits of political participation
Social Changes Extension of white male suffrage Development of common schools –By 1850 ½ women gained literacy Evangelicalism – democratized salvation Development of the Abolition movement out of the evangelical revivals Abolition movement split into the Women’s movement
Twin Revolutions Second Great Awakening ( ) –“Salvation open to all” reinforced the legitimacy of “one man, one vote” –Women: provided a welcomed release from “being treated like beasts of burden and drudges of domineering masters” –Blacks: advocated spiritual and secular equality Platform to directly challenge slavery
New York 1837 “Foreigners and aliens to our government and laws, strangers to our institutions are permitted to flock to this land and in a few years are endowed with all the privileges of citizens, but we native born Americans…are most of us shut out.”