2Study Guide: Identifications Transportation, Market & Industrial RevolutionsPutting Out systemImmigration and ScapegoatStatus of artisanRhode Island and Waltham SystemCult of DomesticityPurity CrusadeUniversal White Male suffrage2nd Great Awakening
3Study Guide: Questions What marked the increasing industrialization in the US economy between 1815 – 1860?How and why did inequalities increase among the rich, the middle class and the working class?
4Changes that allowed for the Industrial Revolution Transportation RevolutionImprovements in transportation made that transformation possibleFederal, state and corporate investments in transportation improvementsRoads, Canals, RailroadsMarket RevolutionTransition from domestic markets to for distant marketsIndustrial RevolutionDomestic hand labor to machine and factory outputImmigrationCheap and exploitable labor
5Impact of Transportation Revolution Made the transition to the market society possibleReduction in time and money it took to move heavy goods.Growth of CitiesExports increased 6 fold and imports tripledUrban population grewThe north and west developed into a self-sustaining internal marketRural and Urban Market exchangeTransformation brought a dramatic reduction in time and money it took to moveheavy goods.The cities that prospered were those with access to the expanding networkof cheap transport on steamboats, canals, and RR.Exports increased 6 fold and imports tripled.The north and west developed into a self-sustaining internal marketThe network opened up the rural interior for the purchase of farm commodities by city merchants and the sale of finished good bys urban importers and manufacturers.The transportation revolution triggered a surge in urban growth.A huge influx of immigrants after the mid 1840s and advances in thesteam engines provided the cheap labor and power that made citiesmanufacturing centers.
6Immigration Political turmoil and Famine brought Massive immigration Irish Potato Famine2.5 Million (30% of Ireland’s population)German immigration4.2 MillionProvided Cheap/Exploitable LaborUsed to scapegoat political, economic & social issuesA surge of immigrants swelled the size of the cities after the 1830s, at Mid century most of NY was foreign born and in all thee port cities of the northeast immigrants dominated the manufacturing work force, most were Irish and German.(7 million over the last 3 centuries) Irish helped did canal systems, lay RR track, pave streets and lay water lines. Subject initially to anti-catholic sentiment initially they were not particularly resented B/c their labor was needed, until the massive immigration following the famineThe economic and political upheavals in Europe during the 1840s spurred mass migration. Catholic peasants from Ireland, dominated by their protestant English land lords eked out a living as tenant farmers. The potato famine between brought another 1.5 million into America (1 million died of starvation). The Irish received the worst and lowest paying jobs as rag-pickers, porters, day laborers and unskilled factory hands. The Women became the laundresses and maids for the Urban middle class.Germans came to America to escape poor harvests and political turmoil, far more Germans had capital to purchase land when they arrived (4.2 million )The influx of immigrants after the mid-1840s and advances in the steam engines provided the cheap labor and power that made cities manufacturing centers. It was the final ingredient in the expansion of Industrialization during the mid 1800’s. The largest cities in the early 19th C were the Atlantic Ports: NY, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Boston.
7“The Bog Trotters”Cartoonists often chose Irish over Germans as subjects of their political commentary.An insulting name for Irish peasants, the term created an image of Irish peasants as carefree imbeciles. This depiction also suggested that they dances, drank and were irresponsibleClass project: imagine you are in New York in 1855 you are unemployed and have a family to take care of. You blame your unemployment situation on new immigrants.
8The Poor House from Galway “The Irish fill our prisons, our poor houses, scratch a convict or a pauper, and the chances are that you tickle the skin of an Irish Catholic. Putting them on a boat and sending them home would end crime in this country”The Chicago Post wrote,
9The Great Fear of the Period That Uncle Sam is Swallowed by Foreigners The Problem Solved
10Thomas Nast Cartoon, 1870 Expresses the worry that the Irish Catholics threatened American Freedom
11Early Industry The northeast led Americans industrial revolution Household and small workshop productionPutting-out systemLocal merchants furnished or put out raw materials to rural households and paid at a piece rate for the labor that converted those raw materials into manufacture products. The supplying merchant then marketed and sold these goods.The northeast led Americans industrial revolution. In 1815 it had the largest cities, the most developed capital markets, the technological skills of artisans and the greatest supply of available laborThe household and the small workshop were the sites of manufacturing in Jefferson’s America. Wider markets for manufacturing began to develop in the late 18th century with the Putting-out system. Local merchants furnished or put out raw materials to rural households and paid at a piece rate for the labor that converted those raw materials into manufacture products. The supplying merchant then marketed and sold these goods.In the cities and larger towns most manufacturing was done by artisans, skilled craftsmen who were also known as mechanics. They worked in their own shops with their own tools and produced their own goods. Status of Artisan, skilled workers, independence, prestige, quality of work.
12Artisan Status Status of Artisan: skilled workers Independence Owned tools of productionOwned shopsManaged time and produceskilled workersIndependenceprestige
13Shoe Makers Daguerreotype of shoemakers Shoemakers, like those shown in this early-nineteenth-century daguerreotype, were among the first skilled craftspeople to organize into unions in order to bargain collectively with employers. They lost their first contest in a New York court, but eventually won a case in Massachusetts that provided the precedent for unionization among skilled workers.
14Industrial Espionage Slater’s Rhode Island System Water powered spinning machineRichard Arkwright had invented a water power machine that spun yarn and threadSamuel Slater - Memorized machine & 1790 Imported the plans from England to Patuxet, Rhode IslandThe Rhode Island SystemThe countryside factory townsLabor of Farmer’s daughtersMill VillagesThe American textile industry originated in industrial espionage. Richard Arkwright in 1769 had invented a water power machine that spun yarn and thread. One of his apprentices, Samuel Slater memorized the structure and mechanics and brought it from England to Patuxet, Rhode Island in 1790.Originally Slater’s mill did satisfy the requirements of supplementing landed families incomes. Soon mills sprung up over the countryside with the mill owners building whole villages surrounded by company owned farmland they rented to husbands and fathers of their mill workers.By the 1820s he got rid of the outworkers and bought power looms that transformed the villages into disciplined self-contained factory towns that turned raw cotton into finished cloth. Landless impoverished families soon took their place and created the first Mill town.He asked plant managers questions and made secret drawings of the machines he saw. He returned to Boston to established the Boston manufacturing company or Boston Associates in Built the first Mill in Waltham Massachusetts and expanded into other towns near Boston during the 1820s .Throughout the 1820 and 1830s most mill hands remained young farm daughters. Wages were little over a dollar per week after deductions from room ad board. It was more than they could have earned doing piece-work in the home or as domestics and gave them a sense of financial independence.Though initially recruited the daughters of new England farmers, Irish immigrant labor soon replaced them. By the 1830s and 1840s, the northern United States was experiencing a full blown market revolution. Cities and towns provided financing, retailing and manufacturing while commercial farms traded food for what cities made.
15Waltham System Lowell’s Waltham System Boston Associates Co. 1813 Machines that turned raw cotton into finished clothFrancis Cabot Lowell Toured factories in England in 1811Boston Associates Co. 1813Fully mechanizedBy the 1830s - Unskilled, female labor
16Daguerreotype of a young mill girl, c. 1850, Massachusetts This young girl probably worked at a mill in Waltham or Lowell during the late 1840s. Her swollen and rough hands contrast with her youth, neat dress, and carefully tied, beribboned hair. Her hands suggest that she worked, as did most 12- and 13-year-olds, as a Warper, straightening the strands of cotton or wool as they entered the looms.
17Middlesex Company Woolen mills 1848 Middlesex Company Woolen Mills, Lowell, Massachusetts, c. 1848, artist unknownIn the 1830s an unknown artist painted Middlesex Company Woolen Mills, portraying the hulking mass of the mill buildings. The company organized all the manufacturing processes at a single location, in Lowell, Massachusetts, on the Merrimack River. (Museum of American Textile History)Mill women worked 6dys/wk from dawn to dusk for low wages. Between women at Lowell turned out to protest the wage reductions in demonstrations that were the largest strikes in American History up until that time
18Urban IndustryIndustrial Revolution and the Widening gap between the rich and the poorBy 1835 cities were serving commercial agriculture and factory towns that produced for largely rural domestic market.Creation of the Urban working classIn the cities there was little concern for creating a classless industrial society.Industrial Revolution and the Widening gap between the rich and the poorBy 1835 cities were serving commercial agriculture and factory towns that produced for largely rural domestic market. The market revolution in the country-side had produced the beginnings of industry and the greatest period of growth in US history.Urban Industry & the creation of the Urban working classIn the cities there was little concern for creating a classless industrial society.The vastly wealthy men of finance, a new middle class that bought and sold an ever growing range of consumer goods lived together in communities that unabashedly recognized the reality of social class.
19Class Hierarchy The richest men Growing middle class importers and exporters and took control of banks and insurance companies and made great fortunes in urban real estateGrowing middle classCommercial ClassWholesale and retail merchants,lawyers, salesmen, auctioneers, bookkeepers and accountantsclerks on the bottom creating a white-collar class to cater to the new emerging consumer society.The richest men were the seaport merchants who carried on as importers and exporters and took control of banks and insurance companies and made great fortunes in urban real estate. Below the old mercantile elite were the growing middle class of wholesale and retail merchants, master craftsmen who had transformed themselves into manufacturers, and an army of lawyers, salesmen, auctioneers, clerks, bookkeepers and accountants who took care of the paperwork for a new market society. The commercial class had its own stratification with clerks on the bottom creating a white-collar class to cater to the new emerging consumer society.
20Middle Class Ideal Consumer goods Symbols of their middle class status Notions of gentilitydistinction between manual and non manual workFamily group daguerreotype, 1852This daguerreotype, taken about 1852, reveals the little things so important to etching a middle-class family's social status: curtains; a wall hanging; a piano with scrolled legs; a small desk with elegantly curved legs; a pet; ladies posed in nonproductive but "improving" activities (music, reading); and a young man seemingly staring into space--and perhaps pondering how to pay for it all. (George Eastman House)
21“The Hands” Producers of consumer goods The “hands” Growth in Demand Growth in Working classShoemaking, tailoring and the building trade were divided into skilled and semiskilled segments and farmed out to subcontractors who could turn a profit by cutting labor coststhose people who produced the consumer goods (the “hands”) were growing more numerous. While textiles had become mechanized by the 1850s, most clothes, shoes, brooms, hats, books, furniture and other goods that were available in country stores and city shops were made by hand. City merchants and master craftsmen met the growing demand by hiring some workers.Shoemaking, tailoring and the building trade were divided into skilled and semiskilled segments and farmed out to subcontractors who could turn a profit by cutting labor costs. This led to the creation of an urban working class.
22Urban Industry New York: Ready made clothing trade Cheap manufactured clothCheap, female laborSouthern Markets“negro cottons”Western MarketsDungarees & hickory shirtsBy 1815 the wealthy bought tailor made clothing while everyone else wore clothes made at home. The first clothing sweat shops developed in New York, the first shoe sweat shops developed in Massachusetts.In the 1820s the availability of cheap manufactured cloth and an expanding pool of cheap female labor, with the creation of the southern and western markets, transformed New York city into the in to the center of the national market in ready made clothes. The first bid market was “Negro Cottons”
23Rising Standard of Living After 1815per capita income doubledliving standards roseHouses: larger, better furnished, heated.Food: more plentiful and variedThe cost:Half of all adult white males without landwealth had become more concentrated.In 1800 the richest 10 percent of Americans owned 40-50% of the national wealth, by the 1850s they owned 70%. In the cities they owned over 80%.Growing inequality and new ClassesAs the economy expanded after 1815 per capita income doubled, living standards for most Americans improved. Houses for those who could afford them became larger, better furnished and heated. Food was more plentiful and varied and factory made consumer goods made life easier and more comfortable.The cost:Half of all adult white males were property less, wealth had become more concentrated and extremes of wealth and poverty eroded the Jeffersonian ideal of the republic.In 1800 the richest 10 percent of Americans owned 40-50% of the national wealth, by the 1850s they owned 70%. In the cities they owned over 80%.
24Making of the middle Class Polar opposites: Separate SpheresWomen’s sphere – a moral issueDemocratization of “The Lady”Class statusStaying at home, devoting self to family and developing feminine traits
25Denial of status of lady Immigrant womenPoor farm womenBlack womenPoor native born womenFactory womenDenial of status of lady also meant the denial of the status of “respectable”Disrespecting non-ladies acceptableTargets of exploitation
26Redefinition of female character Appropriate to elevated statusHome idealized as bastion of feminine valuesPiety, morality, affection, self-sacrificeIconography of MotherhoodElevated importance & significance of the home
27Evangelical CrusadesEarly 19th C ministers bolstered doctrine of separate spheresClerical endorsement of female moral superiority in exchange for women’s activismDecline of clerical authority in societyOpposed forces that seemed to act against women’s interestsMaterialismIntemperanceLicentiousness
28Cult of Domesticity The separation of work and home New sense of class-consciousness.Middle class fathers left for their jobs while mothers governed households.Reduction in size of families1820s ministers and female writers elevated the family role of middle class women into a cult of domesticity
29Cult of DomesticityBiological difference determined separate social roles for men and women.Men:strong, aggressive and ambitious, intelligentPlace in business and politics.Women:Kind, pure, emotional, moralPlace to preserve religion and morality in the home and familyCult of DomesticityThe separation of work and home constituted the first step in the evolving sense of class-consciousness.Middle class fathers left for their jobs while mothers governed households. Homes became places of material comfort for the rising middle class.Families became smaller, children were no longer an economic asset as they had been as workers on the family farm.Beginning in the 1820s ministers and female writers elevated the family role of middle class women into a cult of domesticity.These idealized conception of womanhood insisted that the biological difference of Gods natural order, determined separate social roles for men and women.Men: Characterized as strong, aggressive and ambitious, men naturally belonged in the competitive world of business and politics.Women’s task was to preserve religion and morality in the home and family. They possessed moral purity necessary for rearing virtuous children and preserving the home as a refuge from the outside world.
30Purity CrusadeTraditionally: both men and women wee sexual beings, women weaker willed, lustful and licentious and insatiablePurity Crusade: women lacked sexual feeling, lust and carnality became a part of men’s sphereEtiquette manuals counseled to deter male advances
31Women’s other institution Frances Trollope (England) 1830s“I have never seen a country where the religion had so strong a hold upon the women, or slighter upon the men”3:2 converts womenWomen took an active role in religionMen continued to control the boundaries
32Lowered Standard of Living First Slums appeared in the mid 1800sHuge influx of immigrants and creation of exploitable labor forceOvercrowded HousingContaminated water suppliesLack of SewageDisease and high mortality ratesCholera and TyphusThe first Slums appeared in the mid 1800s due to huge influx of immigrants and creation of exploitable labor force. Small, Flimsy, wooden structures, often crammed into a back alley, housed the working poor in cramped, fetid conditions. Backyard privies supplemented chamber pots that overflowed in heavy rain and often contaminated private wells, the source of drinking water. Garbage and animal waste accumulated on streets, scavenged by packs of roving hogs. The overcrowded and unsanitary conditions led to disease and high mortality rates (Cholera and Typhus) Manufacturing towns and cities (coal) led to extreme pollution and illness.
33Professional Medicine & Women’s Sexuality Women were Asexual beingsDefined by their sex & sexual roles, yet did not desire itDr Alcott, “Women, as is well known, in a natural state…seldom if ever makes any of those advances, which clearly indicates sexual desire and for this very plain reason, she does not feel them.”Only “low” women suffered from the indignity of sexual desireLong periods of abstinence properMasturbation damaged future offspring, and caused “mania” and “idiocy” on the guilty party
34Middle & Upper class invalids Chronic invalidism among womenMiddle class culture idealized female debility1800’s doctors came close the defining femaleness as an illness itself
35Five Points District Five Points District, artist unknown, c. 1829 Working-class neighborhoods like the infamous Five Points District in New York, shown in this anonymous 1829 picture, were filthy, unhealthy, and crime-ridden. Reformers sought to help by changing workers' habits and morals, but seldom addressed their economic plight.
36Twin Revolutions Universal White Male Suffrage Movement Suffrage extended to white males ( ’s)By the 1800s race and gender began to replace wealth and status as the basis for defining the limits of political participationBy the 1800s race and gender began to replace wealth and status as the basis for defining the limits of political participation During the 1820s there began 2 democratic revolutions that led to increased empowerment for more white men in America.Property requirements for voting and office holding, the prevalence of appointed over elected officials and overrepresentation of older and wealthier regions in the state legislature came under increasing attack after 1800 and were eliminated by the 1820’s. Do to popular resistance individual states began lowering or eliminating property requirements to vote or hold office. There was overwhelming demand that all white men be treated equally. Political opportunities began expanding for white males, while shrinking for women and minorities.
37Social Changes Extension of white male suffrage Development of common schoolsBy 1850 ½ women gained literacyEvangelicalism – democratized salvationDevelopment of the Abolition movement out of the evangelical revivalsAbolition movement split into the Women’s movement
38Twin Revolutions Second Great Awakening (1800-1840) “Salvation open to all” reinforced the legitimacy of “one man, one vote”Women: provided a welcomed release from “being treated like beasts of burden and drudges of domineering masters”Blacks: advocated spiritual and secular equalityPlatform to directly challenge slaveryEvangelical revivals, a religious reaction against formalism and elitism of protestant churchesBaptists and Methodists were the largest religious denominations by the 1820’s, they reshaped religion to fit the needs and values of ordinary Americans. Evangelical Christianity emphasized personal, heartfelt experience that would produce a spiritual rebirth. Salvation no longer followed the Calvinist doctrine of individual predestination but ordinary people could actively choose salvation.
39New York “Foreigners and aliens to our government and laws, strangers to our institutions are permitted to flock to this land and in a few years are endowed with all the privileges of citizens, but we native born Americans…are most of us shut out.”Women and men were specifically denied the ballot as it was extended to white men, advocates of greater democratization explicitly argued that only white males had the rational intelligence and love of liberty necessary to be entrusted with political rights. Women were to weak and emotional, blacks too lazy and lascivious. White egalitarians simultaneously erected new distinctions based on race and gender that were supposedly natural and immutable/ Personal liberties were thus guarded over by all white men, whose equality ultimately rested on the assumptions of their shared political superiority over all others.African Americans protested the political discrimination In New York 1837, arguing that “foreigners and aliens to the government and laws , strangers to our institutions, are permitted to flock to this land and in a few years are endowed with all the privileges of citizens, but we native born Americans….are most of us shut out.”