Presentation on theme: "Bellringer Name 2 inventors and their inventions that will be discussed in this section."— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer Name 2 inventors and their inventions that will be discussed in this section.
Chapter 13 Mass Society and Democracy Section 1 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity
The Second Industrial Revolution The new industrial frontiers of the 1800s: –Steel –Chemicals –Electricity –Oil
New Products Between 1870 and 1914 steel replaced iron. New methods for shaping steel made it possible to build lighter, smaller, and faster machines, engines, railroads, and more.
New Products By 1913 Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Germany were producing an astounding 32 tons of steel a year.
New Products The new energy from electricity was valuable because it was convertible into heat, light, and motion.
New Products By 1910 hydroelectric power stations and coal-fired steam generating plants allowed houses and factories to have a single, common power source. Early European plant
Inventors Using Electricity Thomas Edison Light Bulb
Inventors Using Electricity Alexander Graham Bell Telephone - 1876
Inventors Using Electricity Guglielmo MarconiFirst radio waves across the Atlantic - 1901
Streetcars & Subways By the 1880s streetcars and subways powered by electricity appeared in European cities. 1 st streetcar in Europe
Internal Combustion Engine The development of the internal combustion engine provided a new power source for transportation and new kinds of transportation: What kind of transportation you ask??? –Ocean liners –Airplanes –Automobile
Orville & Wilbur Wright
The Wright Brothers
New Patterns Increased sales of manufactured goods caused industrial production to grow.. Wages increased after 1870. Reduced transportation costs caused prices to fall. Urban department stores put many consumer goods up for sale.
New Patterns Some European countries did not benefit from the Second Industrial Revolution. Great Britain, the Netherlands, Belguim, France, among others had a high standard of living. British Netherlands Belgium France
New Patterns Spain, Portugal, Russia, Austria- Hungary, the Balkans, and southern Italy were agricultural and much less wealthy. They provided the industrialized nations with food and raw materials.
Toward a World Economy There developed a true world economy in Europe. Goods came In Capital invested abroad
Organizing the Working Classes Industrial workers formed socialist political parties and unions to improve their working conditions.
Karl Marx Karl Marx developed the theory socialism was based on. 1848 – The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto Spoke out against industrial working conditions and blamed capitalism. Proposed a new social system. One form was called Communism.
Karl Marx Beliefs on Industry World history was a history of class struggle b/w oppressing owners and oppressed workers. Oppressors controlled politics and gov’t. Gov’t is an instrument of the ruling class.
Karl Marx Beliefs on Society Believed that society was divided b/w the bourgeoisie (middle-class opressors) and the proletariat (working-class oppressed), each hostile toward the other. Predicted the conflict would result in a revolution in which the proletariat would violently overthrow the bourgeoisie and form dictatorship. The revolution would produce a society w/o classes and class conflict.
Socialist Parties German Social Democratic Party (SPD), 1875, was the most important working class party. Worked to pass laws for improving conditions of the working class Became Germany’s largest party in 1912 and received 4 million votes.
Socialist Parties Emerged in Europe as well. 1889 various leaders formed the Second International. Dedicated to fight worldwide capitalism.
Division of Marxists Pure Marxist looked to overthrow capitalism violently. Other Marxists, revisionists, rejected the revolutionary program and argued to work with other parties for reforms. Democratic rights would help workers achieve their goals.
Trade Unions Trade unions worked for evolutionary, not revolutionary, change. 1870s – Great Britain unions won the right to strike. Trade Union workers used the strike to achieve their goals.
Trade Unions By 1900 two million workers were in British trade unions. By 1914 there were four million, and trade unions had made great progress toward improving conditions.
Review 1. What were the new frontiers of the 1800s? 2. Who invented the following? –Telephone –Lightbulb –Radio waves across the Atlantic –Airplane
Review ctd… 3. Leader of the Socialist movement? 4. Most important socialist working class party?
End of Section 1 Next: Section 2 The Emergence of Mass Society