Presentation on theme: "August 2009 Modern World History Industrial Revolution 1700 - 1900."— Presentation transcript:
August 2009 Modern World History Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution It was called a revolution because industrialization changed nearly every aspect of people’s lives, from their living and working conditions, to the structure of social classes and even their economic conditions.
The Industrial Revolution Began in Britain The Industrial Revolution started in England and soon spread to other countries. The changes that began in Britain paved the way for modern industrial societies. Key terms & names: Industrialization Factors of production Factory Industrialization
Why the Industrial Revolution Began in Britain: Natural resources: water power and coal, iron ore (to build machines tools and buildings), rivers and harbors for transportation of goods. Growing economy supported industrialization: banking system, increasing overseas trade, and a general climate of progress. Political stability – no wars on mainland. Factors of production: labor, land and capital. Revolutions in technology by British entrepreneurs.
Industrialization Today The process of industrialization is still spreading around the world, especially in developing countries. A similar technology revolution is occurring in electronics today, transforming the spread of information around the world.
Social Impacts of Industrialization The factory system changed the way people lived and worked, introducing a variety of problems. Many less-developed countries (LDC) are undergoing the difficult process of industrialization today. Key terms & names: Urbanization Middle class
Industrialization Working Conditions Social Classes Industry created many new jobs. Factories were dirty, unsafe and dangerous. Factory bosses exercised harsh discipline. Long Term: Workers won higher wages, shorter hours and better working conditions. Workers were overworked and underpaid. Overseers/skilled workers rose to lower middle-class. Owners and merchants formed upper middle-class. Upper middle class resented those in middle class who became wealthier than them (nouveau riche). Long Term: Standard of living generally rose for most people.
Industrialization Size of Cities Living Conditions Factories brought job seekers to cities. Urban areas doubled, tripled in size. Many cities specialized in certain industries. Long Term: Suburbs grew as people fled crowded cities. Cities lacked sanitary codes or building controls. Housing, water and social services were scarce. Epidemics swept through the city. Long Term: Housing, diet and comforts improved.
Who were the Luddites? The Luddites were angry not only about losing their jobs but also about the life changes forced upon them by industrialization. Instead of working at home along-side their families (cottage industries), textile workers now faced dehumanizing factory conditions. People still use the term Luddites to refer to those opposed to modern technology.
Industrialization Spreads The industrialization that began in Great Britain spread to other parts of the world. The Industrial Revolution set the stage for the growth of modern cities and a global economy. Key terms & names: Stock Corporation
Industrial Development in the United States The United States possessed many of the same resources that allowed Britain to mechanize its industries. Industrialization in the U.S. began in the textile industry. Railroads played a significant role in America’s industrialization, moving resources and products from the center of country to its ports on the coastline. Like Great Britain, American corporations which raised capital through the sales of stock were important engines for the growing U.S. economy.
Continental Europe Industrializes The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars (1789 to 1815) negatively impact the process of industrialization in Europe. However eventually industrialization came to Europe but in different forms. Belgium – first among European nations to industrialize – British skilled labors play an important role. Germany – politically divided in early 1800s with scattered resources and economically isolated so industrialization was more local or regional. However Germans built railroads to link its manufacturing sites.
Continental Europe 0ther European Nations: limited, mainly by region Spain – cotton processing Bohemia (Hungary) – spinning industry Northern Italy – silk spinning Russia – serf labor worked in factories around Moscow and St. Petersburg France – a special situation because agricultural economy remained strong, gov’t involved in control of industrialization Why? Lack of resources, transportation, capital, social structures.
Japan Industrializes Japan was one of the few countries outside of Europe and the U.S. to attempt industrialization in the 1800s. Other countries included Mexico and Egypt. With the beginning of the Meiji era in 1868, the Japanese central government began an ambitious program to transform the country into an industrialized state. Some companies had been in business since the 1600s but new companies were formed, e.g., Mitsubishi formed in 1870 (and still in business.)