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GENETICS AN S 213 Paula Gentry, PhD Chad Steining.

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Presentation on theme: "GENETICS AN S 213 Paula Gentry, PhD Chad Steining."— Presentation transcript:

1 GENETICS AN S 213 Paula Gentry, PhD Chad Steining

2 Contact Information Dr. Gentry  225 Shantz (West end, main floor, in small hallway)  Office  Lab 

3 Contact Information Chad Steining  113 Forbes (Southwest corner of basement level)  Lab  Cell 

4 Concepts in Genetics 7 th Edition William S. Klug and Michael R. Cummings Will be available in the bookstore by the middle of September

5 Welcome Back Picnic Wednesday, September 1, 4:30 PM Campus Ag Center (NW Corner of Campbell Ave and Roger Rd) Ag Ed Picnic Area (west of the equine center) Find out about: dunking faculty, student clubs and organizations, scholarship recipients

6 Free food and T-shirts, games and door prizes (gift certificates and football tickets) Please contact MaryAnn Harris Rides are available

7 Job Announcement Student position with USDA (includes vacation and sick leave) Work with researchers studying aflatoxin and other agriculturally relevant fungi Contact Peg Kattnig:

8 COURSE OVERVIEW  Four regular exams, 125 points each  Drop one exam….. No make-up exams  One comprehensive final exam, 125 points 500 POINTS TOTAL A  90% (  450 pts)B = 80-89% ( ) C = 70-79% ( )D = 60-69% ( ) E  59% (  299)

9 EXPECTATIONS  You deserve preparation, clarity and content from me.  I expect you to prepare and attend. I also expect you to behave yourselves. You know what this means.  Please, please, please, PUHLEEZE, avoid the following question: “Do I need to know this…?” If I talk about it in class, you need to know it.

10 WHY GENETICS? Or, Why do they make us take this class?

11 Why Genetics?

12 Perspective!

13 Why Genetics?  Clothing  Clothing… cotton, wool?  Food  Food… chicken, beef, pork, milk, rice, wheat, corn, yeast?  Health  Health… drug discovery and production (antibiotics, immunosuppressive agents, recombinant compounds), organ culture, diseases  Industry  Industry… citric acid, amylase, pharming  Biotechnology  Biotechnology…altered plant and animal genomes

14 Why Genetics? GENETICS: The study of genes, heredity and variation…. …at the level of the cell, the individual, an individual’s offspring and the population in which individuals live. GENE: A section of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the hereditary material that a) passes from one generation to the next and b) encodes information used by cells to form and do the work of cells.

15 Why Genetics? DNA is the key molecule that links all the disciplines of biology.

16 Why Genetics?  What are the different disciplines within Genetics?  1. Classical or Mendelian Genetics  2. Cytological Genetics  3. Molecular Genetics  4. Population Genetics

17 Why Genetics? Classical or Mendelian Genetics  How traits encoded in DNA are passed from one generation to the next

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19 Why Genetics? Cytological Studies  How DNA is used within a cell to direct the formation and function of a particular cell type, within an organ or functional unit.  Studies use light and electron microscopy to examine cell structure and function.

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22 Why Genetics? Molecular Genetics  Chemical structure of DNA, and by extension of genes, and how they operate at the molecular level.

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25 Why Genetics? Population Genetics  Study of variation of gene expression within and between populations

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27 How are the different disciplines in Genetics useful?

28 Plant Agriculture  Increase yield  Increase nutritional value  Beta carotene (pre-vitamin A) in “golden” rice  Increase disease and pest resistence  StarLink Corn—engineered to contain an insecticidal protein derived from a bacteria  Animal feed only, but sneaked into two taco shells in fall 2000 and set off a storm of controversy regarding genetically engineered crops.

29 Animal Agriculture  Increase meat, milk, egg and wool yield  Increase feed efficiency  Artificial Insemination  Increase genetic progress by inseminating many females with sperm from a single sire.

30 Parentage Analysis  In a mixed sire system, identification of sire and dam by marker analysis  Can be coupled with identification of superior individuals and marker-assisted selection programs  Combine to increase yield and production

31 Pharming  Pharmaceutical production from transgenic animals  Insert a gene encoding a useful protein into the genome of an organism  The useful protein is produced in large quantities by the organism (e.g. in milk or eggs) and can be purified  Erythropoietin, tissue plasminogen activator, insulin, interferon

32 Medicine  Xenotransplantation  Development of cells, tissues and organs from non- humans for transplantation into humans.  Pig organs for transplant—development of a strain of pigs whose cells do not express immunogenic markers on their surface  Carries the risk of disease introduction– AIDS, Ebola and Mad Cow Disease (BSE) are all thought to have spread to humans from animals

33 Gene Therapy  When human disease has been shown to result from a mutation in a single gene (e.g. cystic fibrosis), replacement of the defective/non- working gene with a working copy restores function

34 Immunogenetics  Identification of immune markers that are common between groups of individuals makes possible compatible blood transfusions and organ transplant surgery

35 Disease Diagnosis  DNA chips (microarrays)  Thousands of short DNA sequences attached to a glass slide  Represent different gene sequences from normal and diseased tissues  Can be used to diagnose cancer and some metabolic diseases by identifying expression of genes associated with disease state

36 Forensic Analysis  Crime scene analysis  DNA analysis to establish guilt or innocence


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