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Biotechnology Chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biotechnology Chapter 6

2 Central Points Recombinant DNA technology joins DNA
Biotechnology uses recombinant DNA technology to make products Bacteria, plants, and animals modified Safety of transgenic organisms debated Produce human proteins for disease treatment Many biotechnology inventions patented

3 6.1 What Is Biotechnology? Coupling of genetic technology to biological systems Makes human proteins Previously, human proteins collected from many sources: animals, cadavers, and donated blood Risk from these sources including death

4 In 1985, hGH Produced Potentially unlimited amounts of growth hormone
No possibility of contamination with disease-causing agents Used to treat a number of serious growth disorders

5 How Is hGH Produced? Recombinant DNA technology
Transferred gene for hGH from a human cell DNA to a bacterial cell Creating a transgenic organism Transgenic bacterial cell and its descendants manufacture hGH

6 6.2 Recombinant DNA Technology: Steps (1)
DNA extracted from human cells DNA treated with restriction enzyme, cuts the DNA at specific sites, produce “sticky end” Bacterial plasmid cut with same enzyme Plasmid functions as vector and carries human DNA into bacterial cells

7 6.2 Recombinant DNA Technology: Steps (2)
Fragments of human DNA and plasmid mixed together and join Plasmids enter the bacterial cells, copy themselves, carry recombinant DNA into bacteria Bacteria express gene, synthesize the human protein, can be used for treatments, vaccines, or other purposes

8 Recombinant DNA Technology

9 Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes cut both DNA strands at a recognition site, search for specific base sequence > 1,000 different restriction enzymes Each cuts at specific and different recognition sites

10 Restriction Enzymes

11 Animation: Action of restriction enzymes

12 How Transgenic Plants Are Made

13 Animation: Studying and Manipulating Genomes (formation of recombinant DNA)

14 6.3 Other Transgenic Plants and Animals
Production of medically important proteins Transgenic crops or genetically modified (GM), plants with new characteristics Resistance to herbicides, insects, or viral or fungal diseases Increase the nutritional value of crops Pigs for xenotransplants

15 Transgenic Crops

16 Transgenic Tobacco Produce hGH

17 Insulin from Recombinant DNA

18 Golden Rice Genes from daffodils and bacteria Produce beta carotene

19 Factor VIII Clotting factor for hemophiliacs
Without the use of blood donors

20 Pigs for Possible Organ Transplant
HLA transferred to pig embryos

21 6.4 Are Transgenic Organisms Safe?
Important to address by research and testing Health and environmental risks Economic and social issues Educate public Potential health risks Environmental risks, transfer of transgenes to wild plants, and reduction in biodiversity

22 6.5 Studying Human Diseases
Human Genome Project, plant and animal genomes Many shared genes in other species, including the mouse and Drosophila Animal models of human disease study drug treatments and causes of disease Transgenic organisms used for models

23 Transgenic Animal Models
Produce an animal with similar symptoms Used to study the development and progress of a disease Used to develop and test drugs to cure or treat animal model of the human disease Currently used for Huntington disease (HD) Eventually, drugs used to treat humans

24 Rhino Mouse Used to study immune deficiency conditions

25 Curly Tail Mouse Used to study neural tube defects

26 Obese Mouse Used to study weight-loss products

27 6.6 Legal and Ethical Issues in Biotechnology
Patenting organisms and genes Diamond v. Chakrabarty Oil-eating bacteria used four plasmids from different strains Produce one strain of Pseudomonas Harvard University patent on a transgenic OncoMouse (U.S. only)

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