Presentation on theme: "TRIUMPHS AND TRAVAILS OF JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY. The Jeffersonian Revolution Over 6 feet tall Not a good public speaker Great writer renaissance man Incredibly."— Presentation transcript:
The Jeffersonian Revolution Over 6 feet tall Not a good public speaker Great writer renaissance man Incredibly well-read (science & philosophy) Continental Congress member Assemblyman in Virginia Gov. of Virginia Author of Dec. of Independence Minister to France Secretary of State Vice President Is he qualified to be President?
Westward Expansion Treaty of Paris (1783) didn’t protect Indian land Americans gave Indians two choices: ▫Give up land ▫Fight for land Indians: initial successes (1790-91) fighting
Westward Expansion 1794 – General “Mad Anthony” Wayne defeats seven unified tribes (Battle of Fallen Timbers) Treaty of Greenville (1795) ▫Indians own west of Appalachians ▫SE portion NW Territory ceded to U.S. ▫seen as Indian land under American protection
Westward Expansion Treaty of Greenville -- End of conflict? NO People kept coming William H. Harrison (future president); land (ethically?) in Indiana Territory Georgia, Tennessee, and Mississippi Territory made agreements with Indians
Westward Expansion Why move west? ▫Depleted soil in east ▫Plantation owners have most/best land ▫Yeomen, poor farmers want better land ▫Young want opportunity
Westward Expansion Issues Kentucky ▫Squatters from Virginia claimed land ▫Virginia allowed up to 1400 acres (buy) ▫21 wealthy groups got average of 100,000 acres ▫What will be the effect? New England ▫Soil exhausted ▫Families subdivided land ▫Moved to western New York, Ohio, New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont ▫Few wealthy speculators bought up most Left little for yeomen Rent was charged ▫What will be the effect?
Westward Expansion Eastern Agricultural Changes Lost labor and capital ▫Changed crops (potatoes) ▫Iron plows replaced wood ▫Crop rotation ▫Year round farming ▫What will be the effect? Transportation Issues ▫Difficult to get crops to market ▫Needed to be on/near water ▫States began internal improvements Turnpikes Improved waterways Canals ▫Mississippi River (& tributaries) = major trade route ▫New Orleans = major port ▫What will be the effect?
What issues about land ownership are developing with westward expansion? Who should own the land?
Jefferson’s Political Principles Themes of inaugural Jefferson’s principles ▫Rejected idea of political elite ▫Backbone of democracy = free, independent farmers ▫Universal suffrage (no property ownership) ▫Easier for yeoman farmers ▫Small government (governs best when governs least) ▫Strict constructionalist
Jefferson – The Beginning of the “Virginia Dynasty” Thomas Jefferson James Madison James Monroe They hold the presidency from 1801-1825
Jeffersonian Restraint Jefferson’s priority: undo Federalist abuses ▫Pardoned convicted under Alien and Sedition Act ▫Naturalization law (1802): residency five years ▫Repealed excise tax (saved US $1 mil. per year) ▫Reduced national debt What does he do to core of Hamilton’s financial program?
Judiciary Act of 1801 “Midnight judges” appointed by Adams ▫Congress went after Federalist judges Jefferson focused on ability Chief Justice John Marshall ▫Shaped meaning of Constitution ▫Chief Justice for 34 years
Other Federalist reversals Reduced size of army Abolished taxes (kept right to use) Avoided large national debt Secretary of Treasury, Albert Gallatin halved national debt Reversed tributes to Barbary pirates
Jefferson Turns Warrior North African Barbary Pirates seizing American ships Navy & Marines fight undeclared war Tripoli backed down (1805)
The Louisiana Purchase Spain: Louisiana from France after French & Indian War 1800: Spain ceded back to France (secret until 1803) Why does France want it? 1798: Spain withdrew “right of deposit” (use Port of New Orleans) Farmers’ reaction? Jefferson’s options? Right restored in 1801
The Louisiana Purchase Robert Livingston and James Monroe negotiate Instructions? ▫Purchase port of New Orleans
The Louisiana Purchase Napoleon offers all for $15 mil. ▫Why? ▫Failed effort to retake Haiti ▫War with Britain imminent ▫Needed money! Livingston and Monroe agree
Louisiana In The Long View Does Jefferson follow Constitution? Doubled size of country (very fertile land) Increased westward expansion Feeling that country was unlimited Seeds of Manifest Destiny: America destined to control entire continent
Opposition to Louisiana Federalists: unconstitutional ▫Hurts New England economically ▫New England talks secession ▫Ask for Hamilton’s help, he refuses ▫Asked Aaron Burr, he agrees ▫Hamilton accuses Burr of attempting to overthrow the union!
Hamilton-Burr Duel Burr killed Hamilton Charged with murder; flees to Southwest Burr accused of treason Acquitted of charges
Jefferson’s Second Term Re-elected (1804) in landslide (162-14) over C.C. Pinckney Second term: try to stay neutral (avoid European conflicts)
Jefferson’s Second Term Napoleon reignites war 1806: France supreme on land, Brits on seas At first, US shippers get rich trading to both
America: A Neutral? Power? British blockading continental ports French banned British and neutral ships Why would US see this as violation? (think Washington) U.S. CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE! England stops ships looking for deserters England impresses over 6000 US sailors between 1808-11 Problem?
Jefferson’s Backfiring Embargo National outrage/honor required action! options? Embargo Act (1807) ▫U.S. ships: couldn’t leave ports until British and French repealed restrictions ▫Felt England and France needed America
Embargo Most people HATED it. Why? ▫New England Federalists particularly mad ▫What did they argue? Consequences: ▫Three times more costly than war ▫Ruined U.S. shipping ▫Ultimately helped New England factories ▫Fostered American industry
Non-Intercourse Act March 1809 (end of Jefferson’s term) Congress repealed embargo for Non- Intercourse Act ▫Lifted embargo except on British and French ports ▫Impossible to enforce ▫Led to further problems with British
How would you evaluate the success/failure of Jefferson? Worthy of a third term?