Presentation on theme: "TRIUMPHS AND TRAVAILS OF JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY"— Presentation transcript:
1TRIUMPHS AND TRAVAILS OF JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY Chapter 11
2The Jeffersonian Revolution Well over 6 feet tallNot a good public speaker.One of the greatest writers among U.S. Pres.A renaissance manIncredibly well-read in science and philosophyCont. Congress;assemblyman;Gov. of Virginia.;Author of Dec. of Independence;Min. to France;Sec. of State;Vice Pres.
3Election of 1800 Adams v. Jefferson again. Close again. Aaron Burr runs as Dem.-Rep. Vice PresidentJefferson wins this time, 73 to 65.Why do Federalists lose support?Election is very personalNew York is the key swing state. NY delivered to Jefferson by Aaron Burr through his connections in the state.Jefferson strongest in west and south where universal white male suffrage (no property requirements) had taken hold.
5Election of 1800 Aaron Burr problem. Vice Presidential election and electoral college before the 12th AmendmentBurr and Jefferson Tie = throws election into House of Rep. (federelist)What Hamilton does to help Jefferson?Why he does it.
6Revolution of 1800Election of 1800 arguably the most significant in US History.Why?
7The Federalist Finale Adams was the last Federalist president. Federalist as halfway house between European past and American present.Why can’t Federalists appeal to more voters?Stayed a party for another 20 years, but can’t win the presidency.Federalists, like the dinosaurs, couldn’t adapt and so became extinct
8Jefferson’s Political Principles Themes of inauguralJefferson’s political principlesRejected the idea of a political elite.Backbone of democracy was the free, independent farmer.Universal suffrage without regard to property ownership.Small government—government governs best when it governs least.Strict construction of the Constitution.
9Jeffersonian Restraint Jefferson’s first priority was to undue abuses by the Federalists. What does he do?Pardoned those convicted under the Alien and Sedition ActPushed a new naturalization law (1802) that reduced residence requirement back to five years.Repealed the excise tax—cost US 1 Mill. per year in lost revenue.reduced the national debtWhat does he do to the core of Hamilton’s financial program.
10Judiciary Act off 1801 What did it do “midnight judges”. How did Dem.-Rep. view law?Dem.-Rep. repealed the Judiciary Act.Chief Justice John MarshallShaped American legal tradition and meaning of the Constitution more profoundly than any other single figure.Served as Chief Justice for 34 years
11Marbury v MadisonMarshall’s first and one of his most important legaciesBasic FactsRulingJudicial ReviewConsequences
12Jefferson Turns Warrior Jefferson attitude and actions toward army and navy.North African Barbary Pirates“Shores of Tripoli”Mosquito fleet
13The Louisiana GodsendSpain had gotten Louisiana from France after the F&I War1800 Spain ceded Louisiana Territory to FranceWhy does France want it?In 1802 Spain withdrew the right of deposit.Farmers’ reaction? Jefferson’s options?Jefferson send envoys. Their instructions?Napoleon offers to sell the entire territory for 15 Mill..Why?Envoys jump at the offer without waiting for instructions.
14Louisiana PurchaseTerr. West of Mississippi in Miss. and Mo. River watershed
15Louisiana In The Long View One of the most important events in US History.Doubled the size of country and gave us very fertile land.Increased the momentum of westward expansion.Led to the feeling that country was unlimited.Planted the seeds of manifest Destiny—idea that America destined to control entire continent.
17Hamilton-Burr Duel Federalist attitude toward Louisiana Purchase Aaron Burr Plot for the secession of New EnglandHamilton-Burr duel in 1804.Reason for DuelBurr killed Hamilton during the duel, and Burr further discredited
18America: A Nutcrackered Neutral Jefferson reelected in 1804 in a landslide. (162-14),In his second term forced to deal with the mess in Europe and to try to find a way to stay neutral.Napoleon reignites war in Europe. Brits oppose.By 1806 France supreme on Land, Brits supreme on seas. Stalemate.At first, US shippers get rich trading to both sides.
19America: A Nutcrackered Neutral British Orders in Council in 1806Napoleon’s response?Why does US see this as violation of its rights?England impresses over 6000 US sailors betweenWhy does England refuse to stop?Chesapeake Affair -1807Americans outraged and ready for war, but Jefferson refuses to pull the trigger. Why?
20Jefferson’s Backfiring Embargo National Honor required US to do somethingPros and cons of US options.Embargo Act (1807)Assumed this would quickly bring England and France around.
21Embargo Most people HATE it. Why?. Consequences: New England Federalist particularly mad.What did they argue?.Consequences:Three times more costly that war would have been.Ultimately did help New England factories.
23Non-Intercourse ActMarch 1809, just before Jefferson leaves office, Congress repealed the embargo and substituted the Non-Intercourse ActWhat did IT require?Why embargo failed?Non-Intercourse Act did hurt England, and they repealed Orders in Council, but too late to avoid War of 1812
24James Madison Became 4th President in 1809. 5-4, 100 lb., weak voice. Very distinguished career:Cont. Congress, Congressman, Const. Convention, Sec. of State.Not very successful as President. Party broken by factions and he was not a strong leader of it.Dolly Madison, first true First Lady who acted as social hostess.
25Madison: Dupe Of Napoleon Macon’s Bill No. 2Why it was passed?What it said about trade?Napoleon tricks Madison into believing France would comply. Sets US on course antagonistic to England.“War Hawks”War Hawks pushing for War against England.Why?Henry Clay; John C. Calhoun
27Battling Indians in the West War Hawks believed Brits stirring up Indians in the West.Kentucky ProblemTecumseh and the Prophet. Shawnee BrothersThey began to build a tribal confederacy east of the Mississippi.Their plan.Attacked Settlers in “their” land.
28Indian BattlesNov 1811 General William Henry Harrison (9th president) attacked Tecumseh’s headquarters at Tippecanoe Indiana1814 Andrew Jackson (7th President) crushed Creek Indians at Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Alabama)Significance?
29War of 1812June 1812 militant War Hawks get a declaration of war from Congress,very narrow vote, signaling a dangerous division in the countryFederalists strongly opposeDub it “Mr. Madison’s War”