Presentation on theme: "TRIUMPHS AND TRAVAILS OF JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:
TRIUMPHS AND TRAVAILS OF JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY Chapter 11
The Jeffersonian Revolution Well over 6 feet tall Not a good public speaker. One of the greatest writers among U.S. Pres. A renaissance man Incredibly well-read in science and philosophy Cont. Congress; assemblyman; Gov. of Virginia.; Author of Dec. of Independence; Min. to France; Sec. of State; Vice Pres.
Election of 1800 Adams v. Jefferson again. Close again. Aaron Burr runs as Dem.-Rep. Vice President Jefferson wins this time, 73 to 65. Why do Federalists lose support? Election is very personal New York is the key swing state. NY delivered to Jefferson by Aaron Burr through his connections in the state. Jefferson strongest in west and south where universal white male suffrage (no property requirements) had taken hold.
Electi on of 1800
Aaron Burr problem. Vice Presidential election and electoral college before the 12 th Amendment Burr and Jefferson Tie = throws election into House of Rep. (federelist) What Hamilton does to help Jefferson? Why he does it.
Revolution of 1800 Election of 1800 arguably the most significant in US History. Why? Why?
The Federalist Finale Adams was the last Federalist president. Federalist as halfway house between European past and American present. Why can’t Federalists appeal to more voters? Stayed a party for another 20 years, but can’t win the presidency. Federalists, like the dinosaurs, couldn’t adapt and so became extinct
Jefferson’s Political Principles Themes of inaugural Jefferson’s political principles Rejected the idea of a political elite. Rejected the idea of a political elite. Backbone of democracy was the free, independent farmer. Backbone of democracy was the free, independent farmer. Universal suffrage without regard to property ownership. Universal suffrage without regard to property ownership. Small government—government governs best when it governs least. Small government—government governs best when it governs least. Strict construction of the Constitution. Strict construction of the Constitution.
Jeffersonian Restraint Jefferson’s first priority was to undue abuses by the Federalists. What does he do? Pardoned those convicted under the Alien and Sedition Act Pardoned those convicted under the Alien and Sedition Act Pushed a new naturalization law (1802) that reduced residence requirement back to five years. Pushed a new naturalization law (1802) that reduced residence requirement back to five years. Repealed the excise tax—cost US 1 Mill. per year in lost revenue. Repealed the excise tax—cost US 1 Mill. per year in lost revenue. reduced the national debt reduced the national debt What does he do to the core of Hamilton’s financial program.
Judiciary Act off 1801 What did it do “midnight judges”. How did Dem.-Rep. view law? Dem.-Rep. repealed the Judiciary Act. Chief Justice John Marshall Shaped American legal tradition and meaning of the Constitution more profoundly than any other single figure. Shaped American legal tradition and meaning of the Constitution more profoundly than any other single figure. Served as Chief Justice for 34 years Served as Chief Justice for 34 years
Marbury v Madison Marshall’s first and one of his most important legacies Basic Facts Ruling Judicial Review Judicial Review Consequences Consequences
Jefferson Turns Warrior Jefferson attitude and actions toward army and navy. North African Barbary Pirates “Shores of Tripoli” Mosquito fleet
The Louisiana Godsend Spain had gotten Louisiana from France after the F&I War 1800 Spain ceded Louisiana Territory to France Why does France want it? In 1802 Spain withdrew the right of deposit. Farmers’ reaction? Jefferson’s options? Jefferson send envoys. Their instructions? Napoleon offers to sell the entire territory for 15 Mill.. Why? Why? Envoys jump at the offer without waiting for instructions.
Louisiana Purchase Terr. West of Mississippi in Miss. and Mo. River watershed
Louisiana In The Long View One of the most important events in US History. Doubled the size of country and gave us very fertile land. Increased the momentum of westward expansion. Led to the feeling that country was unlimited. Planted the seeds of manifest Destiny—idea that America destined to control entire continent.
Exploring the Louisiana Purchase and the West
Hamilton-Burr Duel Federalist attitude toward Louisiana Purchase Aaron Burr Plot for the secession of New England Hamilton-Burr duel in 1804. Reason for Duel Reason for Duel Burr killed Hamilton during the duel, and Burr further discredited
America: A Nutcrackered Neutral Jefferson reelected in 1804 in a landslide. (162-14), In his second term forced to deal with the mess in Europe and to try to find a way to stay neutral. Napoleon reignites war in Europe. Brits oppose. By 1806 France supreme on Land, Brits supreme on seas. Stalemate. At first, US shippers get rich trading to both sides.
America: A Nutcrackered Neutral British Orders in Council in 1806 Napoleon’s response? Why does US see this as violation of its rights? England impresses over 6000 US sailors between 1806-11. Why does England refuse to stop? Chesapeake Affair -1807 Americans outraged and ready for war, but Jefferson refuses to pull the trigger. Why?
Jefferson’s Backfiring Embargo National Honor required US to do something Pros and cons of US options. Embargo Act (1807) Assumed this would quickly bring England and France around. Assumed this would quickly bring England and France around.
Embargo Most people HATE it. Why?. New England Federalist particularly mad. New England Federalist particularly mad. What did they argue?. What did they argue?. Consequences: Three times more costly that war would have been. Three times more costly that war would have been. Ultimately did help New England factories. Ultimately did help New England factories.
Non-Intercourse Act March 1809, just before Jefferson leaves office, Congress repealed the embargo and substituted the Non-Intercourse Act What did IT require? What did IT require? Why embargo failed? Non-Intercourse Act did hurt England, and they repealed Orders in Council, but too late to avoid War of 1812
James Madison Became 4th President in 1809. 5-4, 100 lb., weak voice. Very distinguished career: Cont. Congress, Congressman, Const. Convention, Sec. of State. Not very successful as President. Party broken by factions and he was not a strong leader of it. Dolly Madison, first true First Lady who acted as social hostess.
Madison: Dupe Of Napoleon Macon’s Bill No. 2 Why it was passed? Why it was passed? What it said about trade? What it said about trade? Napoleon tricks Madison into believing France would comply. Sets US on course antagonistic to England. “War Hawks” War Hawks pushing for War against England. Why? Why? Henry Clay; John C. Calhoun Henry Clay; John C. Calhoun
“War Hawks” Henry Clay [KY] John C. Calhoun [SC]
Battling Indians in the West War Hawks believed Brits stirring up Indians in the West. Kentucky Problem Kentucky Problem Tecumseh and the Prophet. Shawnee Brothers They began to build a tribal confederacy east of the Mississippi. They began to build a tribal confederacy east of the Mississippi. Their plan. Their plan. Attacked Settlers in “their” land. Attacked Settlers in “their” land.
Indian Battles Nov 1811 General William Henry Harrison (9th president) attacked Tecumseh’s headquarters at Tippecanoe Indiana 1814 Andrew Jackson (7th President) crushed Creek Indians at Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Alabama) Significance? Significance?
War of 1812 June 1812 militant War Hawks get a declaration of war from Congress, very narrow vote, signaling a dangerous division in the country Federalists strongly oppose Dub it “Mr. Madison’s War”