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Chapter 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic 1800-1812 “Timid men…prefer the calm of despotism to the boisterous sea of liberty.”

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic 1800-1812 “Timid men…prefer the calm of despotism to the boisterous sea of liberty.”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic “Timid men…prefer the calm of despotism to the boisterous sea of liberty.” – Thomas Jefferson

2 SSUSH6 The student will analyze the impact of territorial expansion and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation. a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states. b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark.

3 Chapter 11 Structure Standard 6, A&B Presidency of Thomas Jefferson ( ) Presidency of Thomas Jefferson ( ) From Adams to Jefferson From Adams to Jefferson Marbury v. Madison Marbury v. Madison Louisiana Purchase (1803) Louisiana Purchase (1803) Lewis and Clark explore the West Lewis and Clark explore the West Continuation of British/French quarrel Continuation of British/French quarrel Embargo (1807) Embargo (1807) Indian threat Indian threat Beginnings of the War of 1812 Beginnings of the War of 1812

4 Election of 1800 Bitter partisan dispute between a divided Feds and DRs Bitter partisan dispute between a divided Feds and DRs Adams refused Fed war w/ France Adams refused Fed war w/ France Jefferson’s relations with slave woman Jefferson’s relations with slave woman

5 Jefferson squeaks by… Industrial North vs. Rural South Industrial North vs. Rural South Thanks to 3/5 Compromise, South obtains more voting power Thanks to 3/5 Compromise, South obtains more voting power VP Burr gains electoral college support VP Burr gains electoral college support Feds hate Jefferson, but see him as lesser evil compared to Aaron Burr Feds hate Jefferson, but see him as lesser evil compared to Aaron Burr “LAME DUCK” “LAME DUCK” 12 th Amendment (1804) 12 th Amendment (1804)

6 Revolution of 1800? Why did Jefferson refer to his election in 1800 as a “Revolution”? Why did Jefferson refer to his election in 1800 as a “Revolution”? Was it a true revolution? Was it a true revolution?

7 TJ takes office “The will of the majority is in all cases to prevail…{but} that will to be rightful must be reasonable; the minority possess their equal rights which equal law must protect and to violate would be oppression.” “The will of the majority is in all cases to prevail…{but} that will to be rightful must be reasonable; the minority possess their equal rights which equal law must protect and to violate would be oppression.” Rid White House events of the practice of seating based on rank or class. Rid White House events of the practice of seating based on rank or class. Transfer of power was relatively smooth Transfer of power was relatively smooth

8 TJ takes office… Changed laws of the Alien and Sedition Acts Changed laws of the Alien and Sedition Acts Nullification (VA/KY Acts) Nullification (VA/KY Acts) Reduced size of the Army (‘police force’) Reduced size of the Army (‘police force’) Removed EXCISE taxes (Whiskey Rebellion) Removed EXCISE taxes (Whiskey Rebellion) Left in place the financial framework of Hamilton and the Federalists (National Bank, assuming state debts, tariffs, national debt, etc.) Left in place the financial framework of Hamilton and the Federalists (National Bank, assuming state debts, tariffs, national debt, etc.)

9 MIDNIGHT JUDGES In the last hours of Adams’ presidency, appointed 16 Federalists judges to various federal positions. In the last hours of Adams’ presidency, appointed 16 Federalists judges to various federal positions. John Marshall – appointed to Chief Justice by Adams, cousin of Jefferson John Marshall – appointed to Chief Justice by Adams, cousin of Jefferson “As the Federalist party died out, Marshall lived on, handing down Federalists’ decisions for 34 more years.” (p. 218) “As the Federalist party died out, Marshall lived on, handing down Federalists’ decisions for 34 more years.” (p. 218)

10 Midnight Judges As Federalist power was declining, Adams viewed these last minute appointees as a means to keep Federalist influence in government. As Federalist power was declining, Adams viewed these last minute appointees as a means to keep Federalist influence in government. This situation led to……… This situation led to………

11 Marbury v. Madison William Marbury – “Midnight Judge” appointed by Adams William Marbury – “Midnight Judge” appointed by Adams Madison (Secretary of State) was going to deny Marbury this position Madison (Secretary of State) was going to deny Marbury this position Marbury sued Madison, stating that this action was unconstitutional Marbury sued Madison, stating that this action was unconstitutional

12 Marbury v. Madison John Marshall (Chief Justice, and Jefferson’s cousin) dismissed Marbury case John Marshall (Chief Justice, and Jefferson’s cousin) dismissed Marbury case Jefferson (Madison) was not pleased with decision either. Jefferson (Madison) was not pleased with decision either. Marshall issued the idea of “JUDICIAL REVIEW” – the idea that the NATIONAL SUPREME COURT had the final word on the question of constitutionality. Marshall issued the idea of “JUDICIAL REVIEW” – the idea that the NATIONAL SUPREME COURT had the final word on the question of constitutionality.

13 Trouble Abroad Barbary Wars – pirates raiding American ships in the Mediterranean (Northern Africa) and bribing America for their release Barbary Wars – pirates raiding American ships in the Mediterranean (Northern Africa) and bribing America for their release British/French doing the same? British/French doing the same? “War” raged on for 4 years “War” raged on for 4 years Jefferson paid Barbary States $60,000 for captured American sailors. Jefferson paid Barbary States $60,000 for captured American sailors. What ethnicity were the Barbers? What ethnicity were the Barbers?

14 Painting of Barbary War Barbary states included Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Tripoli and Egypt Barbary states included Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Tripoli and Egypt MUSLIMS MUSLIMS

15 Louisiana Purchase (1803)

16 Louisiana Purchase Napoleon was running out of money to continue his European conquest. Napoleon was running out of money to continue his European conquest. Foreign minister William Livingston was sent to offer deal to Napoleon for New Orleans only. Foreign minister William Livingston was sent to offer deal to Napoleon for New Orleans only. “The day that France takes possession of New Orleans, we must marry ourselves to the British Fleet and nation.” - TJ “The day that France takes possession of New Orleans, we must marry ourselves to the British Fleet and nation.” - TJ

17 Napoleon I Tied up with mounting problems in European conquest, Napoleon sells ALL French New World possessions. Tied up with mounting problems in European conquest, Napoleon sells ALL French New World possessions. Allowed Jews freedom of religion in France Allowed Jews freedom of religion in France Outlawed slavery in French colonies Outlawed slavery in French colonies Established “Napoleonic Code”; broke down restrictions of feudalism Established “Napoleonic Code”; broke down restrictions of feudalism

18 Toussaint L’Ouverture Haiti declared independence in 1790 amid height of French Revolution Haiti declared independence in 1790 amid height of French Revolution Napoleon failed to re- conquer Haiti Napoleon failed to re- conquer Haiti Resistance led by Toussaint L’Ouverture Resistance led by Toussaint L’Ouverture Mosquitoes carrying yellow fever helped kill off advancing French troops Mosquitoes carrying yellow fever helped kill off advancing French troops Napoleon decides to end New World ambitions Napoleon decides to end New World ambitions

19 Jefferson’s Internal Struggle As a strict constitutionalist, TJ did not believe the President had any power not specifically stated in the Constitution. As a strict constitutionalist, TJ did not believe the President had any power not specifically stated in the Constitution. However, given the circumstances (Napoleon’s willingness to sell LA) Jefferson flip-flopped on his constitutional authority. However, given the circumstances (Napoleon’s willingness to sell LA) Jefferson flip-flopped on his constitutional authority. Jefferson loosely interpreted the Constitution concerning the purchase of Louisiana. Jefferson loosely interpreted the Constitution concerning the purchase of Louisiana.

20 Lewis and Clark ( )

21 LA Purchase Expands America Lands west of Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains. Lands west of Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains. Deal brings land and resources Deal brings land and resources Access to waterways (New Orleans, MS River, MO River, Red River) Access to waterways (New Orleans, MS River, MO River, Red River) Also brings US in direct contact with more Indian tribes Also brings US in direct contact with more Indian tribes

22 Aaron Burr VP in Jefferson’s 1 st Term VP in Jefferson’s 1 st Term Fearful that vast expansion would lead to problems Fearful that vast expansion would lead to problems Joined conspiracy group of New England and New York to secede from Union Joined conspiracy group of New England and New York to secede from Union Conspiracy plot was exposed and foiled by strong Federalist Alexander Hamilton Conspiracy plot was exposed and foiled by strong Federalist Alexander Hamilton

23 Burr challenges Hamilton to a duel Duels were common in Pre- revolutionary days Duels were common in Pre- revolutionary days If Hamilton had declined duel offer, his career would be tarnished If Hamilton had declined duel offer, his career would be tarnished Burr fired, killing Hamilton. Hamilton did not fire his rifle. Burr fired, killing Hamilton. Hamilton did not fire his rifle.

24 Jefferson’s 2 nd Term ( )

25 Caught in the Middle: England v. France Shark (Britain had world’s best navy) vs. Tiger (France had world’s best army)

26 Jefferson’s Hated Embargo (1807) In response to pressures from England and from France (IMPRESSMENT in particular), Jefferson enacts an Embargo In response to pressures from England and from France (IMPRESSMENT in particular), Jefferson enacts an Embargo EMBARGO - partial or complete prohibition of the movement of merchant ships into or out of a country's ports, in order to isolate it. EMBARGO - partial or complete prohibition of the movement of merchant ships into or out of a country's ports, in order to isolate it. Jefferson thought that by denying England and France raw materials from the US, they would loosen their economic/political grips on America. Jefferson thought that by denying England and France raw materials from the US, they would loosen their economic/political grips on America.

27 Northern v. Southern Effects Opposition to policy re-fuels dwindling Federalist party. Opposition to policy re-fuels dwindling Federalist party. Federalist North basically ignores the Embargo, continues trade with Canada and other countries but recall England was largest trading partner! Federalist North basically ignores the Embargo, continues trade with Canada and other countries but recall England was largest trading partner! Southern farmers were alarmed by the growing supply of un-exportable cotton, grain, and tobacco; they had no market for their goods Southern farmers were alarmed by the growing supply of un-exportable cotton, grain, and tobacco; they had no market for their goods Economies of both regions suffered tremendously Economies of both regions suffered tremendously

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29 TJ decides to step aside Following Washington’s precedent, Jefferson left the Presidency after two terms, happy to escape what he called the “splendid misery” of the highest office in the land. Following Washington’s precedent, Jefferson left the Presidency after two terms, happy to escape what he called the “splendid misery” of the highest office in the land.

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32 Madison succeeds Jefferson

33 James Madison Democratic Republican Democratic Republican Jefferson’s Secretary of State Jefferson’s Secretary of State 4 th President ( ) 4 th President ( ) Inherited feud between France & England Inherited feud between France & England His decisions and circumstance brought about the War of 1812 His decisions and circumstance brought about the War of 1812

34 Tecumseh and “the Prophet” “War Hawks” within the DR Party “War Hawks” within the DR Party Heard stories of their fathers from 1776 Heard stories of their fathers from 1776 Also wanted to wipe-out the Indian threat in the West (OH, IN, IL, etc.) Also wanted to wipe-out the Indian threat in the West (OH, IN, IL, etc.) Shawnee chiefs Tecumseh (left) and his brother “The Prophet” resisted the white man’s encroachment Shawnee chiefs Tecumseh (left) and his brother “The Prophet” resisted the white man’s encroachment

35 Planned Indian Confederacy Squashed William Henry Harrison was governor of the Indiana Territory William Henry Harrison was governor of the Indiana Territory At the Battle of Tippecanoe, he led US army in a defeat of the Prophet and Shawnee At the Battle of Tippecanoe, he led US army in a defeat of the Prophet and Shawnee Harrison becomes a nationally recognized war hero Harrison becomes a nationally recognized war hero

36 Inching closer to war President Madison was being pushed towards a clash with Britain by the “War Hawks” President Madison was being pushed towards a clash with Britain by the “War Hawks” Britain was still supplying Indians with weapons (remember Jay’s Treaty?) Britain was still supplying Indians with weapons (remember Jay’s Treaty?) Madison believed that the only way to prove America as a legitimate country (and that republicanism could work) was to show that we could defeat a world superpower. Madison believed that the only way to prove America as a legitimate country (and that republicanism could work) was to show that we could defeat a world superpower.

37 A War on 2 Fronts War support was sectionalized and partisan. War support was sectionalized and partisan. DR strongholds in the South and DRs in middle states (MD, PA, VA) supported Madison. DR strongholds in the South and DRs in middle states (MD, PA, VA) supported Madison. Federalists also opposed the war; New England was their stronghold Federalists also opposed the war; New England was their stronghold Remember – Federalists  Britain ; DR  France…..Why fight your friends? Remember – Federalists  Britain ; DR  France…..Why fight your friends? Fighting two enemies at once: “Old England” and “New England” Fighting two enemies at once: “Old England” and “New England”


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