Election of 1800 Jefferson defeats Adams, but …… Jefferson and Burr tie in electoral votes. House of Representatives decides the tie. Revolution of 1800. “A triumph of the common citizen over the aristocratic classes.”
Marbury vs. Madison Judicial Review is established.
Adams appoints new judges… John Adams (Federalist) signs appointments on his last night in office. Thomas Jefferson (Democratic – Republican) is to take over as President. What political party do you think the judges Adams appointed belonged to? Why did he do this?
“midnight judges”- what these new judges were referred to as. William Marbury was one of these “midnight judges.”
When does Madison come into play? James Madison, TJs new Secretary of State, was supposed to officially present Marbury with his new position… But he didn’t! So… Marbury sued and appealed to the Supreme Court to get Madison to award him the position…
The Verdict. Supreme Court refuses to grant Marbury his position!! Why? A section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 (which set up the federal court system in the first place) was unconstitutional and void.
Lasting Impact… This is the first time the Supreme Court overturns an act of Congress. Checks & balances in action! Judicial Review- Power of the Supreme Court to decide whether laws or acts passed by Congress are unconstitutional.
Reversal of Federalist policies Secured Congressional repeal of the tax on whiskey. Cut back on military budget and reduced the national debt. Permitted the Alien and Sedition Act to expire and pardoned those affected by it.
Continues some Federalist policies. “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Continued Hamilton’s financial programs such as the National Bank. Reaffirmed Washington’s policy of isolation. Showed that a change of regime (power) not need be drastic and overwhelming change.
Louisiana Purchase Transportation of goods west of the Appalachians. 1n 1800, Napoleon secretly secures the territory from Spain. Robert Livingston and James Monroe negotiate to buy New Orleans and West Florida for $2 million - $10 million. England or France - Jefferson wonders who to support in their war? A small price to pay. $15 million.
Why does Napoleon sell? $$$ for his war effort. Trouble in Haiti (Haitians fighting for independence)
A Constitutional Problem Constitution didn’t specify that the President could negotiate treaties for incorporating new land into the country.. No time for an amendment. Loose Constitutional Interpretation v. Strict Constitutional Interpretation?
Jefferson’s Foreign Policy Problems: Americans relied heavily on overseas trade. Pirates of the Barbary Coast were attacking American ships. Impressment by England and France was still a major problem. Solutions? U. S. Navy and Marines are sent to attack Tripoli. US defeats the pirates. Jefferson puts forward the Embargo Act of 1807. Us refuses to trade with nations at war. This hurts American interests and angers many Americans.
Look at p. 69 in your packet and answer the questions on p. 70 with your seat partner
Embargo Act of 1807 American ships could not sail to foreign ports and prohibited American exports to all foreign countries. Reaction to the war with England and France. Attempt at neutrality. Dismal failure. Why? Non-Intercourse Act of 1809.