4Ch.12 Map ExerciseChina During the Era of Division, The Sui Dynasty, and the Tang Dynasty
5Foundations of Sui-Tang Dynasty 589–618 C.E. After the fall of the Han Dynasty there was a long factional struggle C.E.Wendi unified China in 589 C.E. known as the Sui DynastyUsed alliances, deception, & warfareYangdi, killed his father to gain the throneTo strengthen his empire made legal & educational reformsMilitary Defeats & expensive building projectsCompletion of the Grand Canal, took 5 million people.Projects overwhelmed the people that led to revoltsAfter Yangdi’s death, Li Yuan seized power and founded the Tang Dynasty
6Grand Canal Beijing to Hangzhou 1,115 miles long Connect several existingcanals built by pastDynasties
7Foundations of Tang Dynasty 618–907 Li Yuan ‘s rapid revival of an empire under the Tang was because of imperial bureaucracy using Confucian ideologyUsed scholar-gentry to create bureaucracy & check nobility’s powerExpanded the Confucian-based examination systemMinistry of Rites administered exams, but some officials gained positions via family connections (birth) instead of meritLi Yuan expanded China’s boundariesAfghanistan, Vietnam, Korea,Changan new capital
8Buddhism Buddhism became fully established in China “Golden Age”Mahayana (Pure-land)founded by Chinese monksAppealed to the Chinese commonersSalvationist variant of BuddhismOffered a refuge from war and turmoil.Elite class Chan (Zen–Japan) variants popularReceived a warm welcome at first from Daoists, as they seemed to have much in commonThey both have priests and monasteries and some structure of an organized religion (lacking in Confucianism)Both interested in spells, charms and breathing exercisesThe Leshan Giant Buddha, 233 ft tall begun in 713, completed in 803
9Tang AccomplishmentsModified/extended the Grand Canal boats could reach higher elevations after the pound lock was invented in the 10th centuryMaintained system of roads, including inns, postal stations, and stablesThe Equal-field system of land distribution, controlled the amount of land powerful families could ownA merit-based bureaucracy (originally developed during the Han Dynasty)
10Tang Dynasty Religious Problems Confucian and Daoist supporters took note of Buddhism’s growing influence, and became jealous. Compare & Contrast:Confucianism emphasized duties owed to one’s society, its highest value on order, hierarchy, and obedience to superiorsBuddhism encouraged its supporters to withdraw from society and concentrate on personal meditationFinally in the 9th Century, Confucian scholar-bureaucrats conspired to convince the emperors to take lands away from the Buddhist monasteries through the equal-field systemThe Vinegar Tasters: Laozi , Buddha, and Confucius.
11Tang Dynasty Religious & Ruling Family Problems Worries about “barbarians” ruining society, Buddhism as evidence of foreign evil; Buddhism survived, but in a weakened conditionBuddhism was also attacked for encouraging women in politicsWu Zhao (Empress Wu) seized control of the governmentShe founded her own dynasty in 690, the Zhou (interrupting the Tang Dynasty), from 690 to 705Favored Buddhists and Daoists in her court systemEmperor Xuanzong known as High Point of Tang Dynasty, but 755 riotsEmperor’s lover Yang GuifeiNomad group were encroaching –Tang unable to play them against each other
12Foundations of the Song Dynasty 960-1279 C.E. Scholarly general Zhao Kuangyin founded the Song Dynasty by defeating all rivals except the Manchurian Liao DynastySong favored the Scholar-Gentry class, civil administration, industry, education, and the arts at the expense of the militaryNever established hegemony over as much area as the TangPolitical disunity was a constant threat as long as the Song held power
13Song Dynasty C.E.Presided over China’s “Golden Era” which was characterized by prosperity, sophistication, and creativityExpanded the government based on merit. Accepted more candidates to bureaucratic posts than Sui and TangJinshi – highest exam Presented Scholar (National)Juren - recommended man (Provincial)72 hour exams
14Neo-Confucianism Neo-Confucians became familiar with Buddhist beliefs. Believed that cultivating personal morality was the highest goal of humans. Attained through book learning & personal observation as well as contact with men of wisdom & high moralityA concept that defined a spiritual presence similar to the universal spirit of Hinduism and Buddhism.Reconciled Confucianism with Buddhism.Influenced philosophical thought in many Asian areas (i.e. China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan)Neo-Confucianism scholar Zhu Xi
15Problems Under the Song Finances – Government expenses skyrocketed. Raised taxes, but not for the nobility who had large estatesWang Anshi (Chancellor of Song Dynasty ) attempted reforms, via Legalism, but failedTwo major rebellions responded in protest.Military – Led by scholar bureaucrats with little knowledge in leading armies & military expenditures.1115, the Jurchens, a nomadic group with a strong military, overran the Liao northern China and captured the Song capital, became Jin Kingdom (Qin)Southern Song part of the empire would eventually be conquered by the Mongols. (1279 CE) Weak Politically, Strong Culturally.
16China During the Song Dynasty & Southern Song Dynasty Era
17Patriarchal Social Structures Elites insured the purity of their lines by further confining women to the home.Foot binding became very popularWomen generally could not walk except with canes.Indicated female subservience to their male guardians.Li QingzhaoSong Dynasty Poet
18Economic Revolutions of the Tang and Song Dynasties Increasing agricultural productionIncreasing populationUrbanizationTechnological innovationsPorcelain, iron and steel, gunpowder, movable type, and magnetic compass, and watertight triple hulled large boatsFinancial inventionsPaper money, “flying money” (credit voucher) and checksRemembered as a time of great Chinese accomplishments in science, technology, literature, & fine arts.
19The ‘Golden Age’ of Tang & Song Hegemony: (Hih-gem-o-nee) Dominance over others (political, economic, social and cultural influence)Between 600 – 1450 CE it was impossible for one empire to dominate the entire world, however…..After the demise of the Mongol Empire(s) and before the Renaissance in Europe; China during the Ming Dynasty might have been able to…… ……In what ways did the Chinese empire during the Tang-Song era depart from previous developments in Chinese civilization? Answer:Full incorporation of southern China into economyDominance of South as food-producing region, center of population, political capital of southern SongDecline of influence of BuddhismIncreasing trend toward intellectual and technological isolationExtraordinary level of urbanization-up to 10 percent of population living in cities.Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportionTang built an empire that was far larger than the Han, an empire whose boundaries in many directions extended beyond the borders of modern China.Level of technology. (Page Ref: )
20Kublai Khan, The Yuan Dynasty, and The Early Ming (1279-1450 CE) Kublai Khan captured the capital and set up a new one in Beijing and named it Khanbaluk – “city of the Khan.”China was unified under Kublai Khan.Khan clearly respected Chinese customs and innovations.Kublai Khan elevated the merchants status.
21Problems in the Yuan Dynasty Too few military to protect too many borders.Increased tributes and established “tax farming”Led to corruption.Gap between urban rich and the rural poor also grew.Plague spread through the populationConfucian scholars led a revolt and established the Ming Empire
22Early Ming Dynasty 1368-1450 Zhu Yuan Zhang Known as Hongwu ( )Son of a peasantDrove out MongolsFirst Emperor of Ming DynastyErased all traces of the Mongol past, destroyed palaces etc…Reasserted Confucian ideology Reformed agricultural lands devastated by warrice productionirrigationfish farmingcotton & sugar cane
23Early Ming DynastyZhu Yuan Zhang (Hongwu) located the capital in Nanjing.Also tried closing off trade relations with Central Asia and the Middle East.Turned internal.It was possible to do this because of the great distance between other empires. China could be left alone and no one can do much about it.
24Early Ming Dynasty 1368-1450 Yongle (1402-1424) (Zhu Di) Son of Hongwu Moved royal court to (Peking) Beijing1405 funded voyages of Zheng He lasted until 1433Hoped to impress world with power and by doing so, expand China’s tribute systemA payment by one nation to another to acknowledge its submission and protection
25Zhenghe’s expeditions Everywhere he went, he distributed gifts (gold, silver, silk, scented oils) to show Chinese superiorityAs a result, more than 16 countries sent tribute to the Ming court
26Zhenghe’s expeditions 40 to 300 ships sailed in each expedition (Largest- 416ft?x170ft?)27,000 people in the fleet crew (sailors, soldiers, carpenters, interpreters, accountants, doctors, and religious leaders)Like some huge floating city, the fleet sailed from port to port along theIndian OceanLast voyage in1433 was 17years before“Prince Henry”sailed!1st voyage toIndia was100 yearsbefore DaGama.Later leadersnot interestedWhy?
28Great Wall & Forbidden City Original Great Wall was built and rebuilt starting 200 BCEMing finished rebuilding the wall against invasion from the northBuilding & re-building the Forbidden City & moved the capital from Nanking (Nanjing) to Peking (Beijing)Both cost tremendous amounts money, wood, & resources!