Presentation on theme: "Sparta and Athens Key Terms: Alliance Peloponnesian War What’s the big idea? The two most powerful city-states in Greece, Sparta and Athens, had very different."— Presentation transcript:
Sparta and Athens Key Terms: Alliance Peloponnesian War What’s the big idea? The two most powerful city-states in Greece, Sparta and Athens, had very different cultures and became bitter enemies. Talk with your partner about what you know of Sparta and Athens.
Spartans and the Military Spartan society was dominated by the military. The Spartans believed that military power provided security and protection. Military was everything! Spartan society was started by Lycurgus (ly-KUHR-guhs after a slave revolt.
Boys and Men in Sparta When a boy was born, the government took him away. If the boy was unhealthy, the baby was taken outside the city and left. Healthy boys were trained to be soldiers.
Boys and Men in Sparta Boys trained by running, jumping, swimming, and throwing javelins. They weren’t given shoes and weren’t given warm clothing during the winter. Boys weren’t given enough food to survive. They would be encouraged to steal their food. If they were caught, they would be whipped. How was Spartan society different than American society in regards to theft?
Boys and Men in Sparta Spartan soldiers lived together in barracks and barely visited family from 20-30. They stayed in the army until age 60. They believed that having luxuries made them weak. Spartans didn’t have furniture or eat nice food. Even their enemies admired their discipline.
The Life of a Spartan Soldier Ages 7-12 : Values Training Boys left home and got a basic education. Ages 12-18 : Physical Training Boys built physical skills through exercise. Ages 18-20 : Military Training Men learned how to fight as a part of an army. Where would you be if you were a Spartan male?
The Life of a Spartan Soldier Ages 20-30 : Military Service Soldiers formed the body of the Spartan Army Age 30 : Full citizenship Soldiers could participate in the assembly and move back home.
Girls and Women in Sparta Women had more power in Sparta. They owned land and ran households while men were at war. Women didn’t do jobs that other Greek women did, like weave clothing, but left them for slaves. Spartan women also trained physically. They believed that with strong mothers, children would healthier.
Spartan Government Spartan government was set up to control the city’s helots (HEL-uts), or slaves. Helots lived horrible lives and worked very hard. Helots outnumbered Spartans, but fear of the army kept them from rebelling. Helots grew all the crops. Sparta was ruled by two kings who had very little power.
Athens and the Athenians Athens was Sparta’s main rival. In addition to physical training, the Athenians valued education, clear thinking, and the arts.
Boys and Men in Athens From a young age, boys from rich families improved both body and mind. They trained but only had to devote two years to the army, not all their lives. Athenian men defended their city from age 18-20. Older men only served in time of war. Unlike Spartans, Athenians learned to read, count, and sing. They also studied the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Boys and Men in Athens Rich boys in Athens hired tutors and studied philosophy, geometry, and astronomy. They also learned to speak in public, which helped them later to participate in government. Many boys weren’t wealthy enough to visit tutors but worked as farmers or craftspeople for rich Athenians.
Girls and Women in Athens Girls received almost no education. Some learned to read and write from private tutors, but most learned household tasks. Women in Athens had almost no rights at all. NO Rights! Athenian women could not: Serve government Leave their homes Buy/own anything Disobey men
Alliances Form City-states formed alliances with others to make their military goals easier. Many cities in southern Greece, including Sparta, banded together, forming the Peloponnesian League. This league wanted to stop Athens from growing stronger.
The Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War began when Sparta marched into Athens. Sparta waited for Athens to come out and fight, but they did not. Athen’s navy sent food so Athenians could survive without leaving the city- state.
The Peloponnesian War Athen’s allies also attacked Spartan allies, making it so some Spartan soldiers had to leave Athens to protect the allies. Disease swept through Athens, killing many. Neither city-state could gain the upper-hand. Eventually they came to a truce.