Geography Located in Southeastern Greece Good harbors for trade Poor, rocky soil bad for farming
Population Free male Athenians were citizens Foreigners, women, and slaves had no political rights Education Students were taught to be well rounded (have sound mind and body) Studied many subjects - music, history, and literature
FACT: (Athenian boys began schooling at 7 years of age. At 18, boys graduated from school and began two years of mandatory military service!)
Role of Women Women were considered inferior Had no political or legal rights Received no education – stayed at home Military Strength Eventually became a major sea power
-Women were considered INFERIOR in society. They had NO legal rights. Most women in Athens married in their early teens (usually 14 years of age) and stayed at home to take care of their children. Women would usually marry men twice their age and could not choose their husbands! Most women could not read of write, didn’t go out alone, only worked if they were very poor.
Values and Daily Life Athenians loved theatre and arts Valued philosophy, science, math, debate Loved freedom, beauty, and individuality
Government World’s first democracy: people have a say in government 10 Generals - led the military for one year terms Council of 500 - propose laws and were selected by lot Assembly - all male citizens over age 30, made laws
Geography Southern Greece on the Good soil, plenty of farmland (land was Sparta’s strength) SPARTA
Population Spartans (former Dorians) made up 10% of the population Foreigners – 30% Helots (Spartan slaves) – 60% Education Male students were trained at an early age to be good soldiers Went to very harsh military school at age 7
Role of Women Women could inherit land and property Participated in sports and military drills Military Strength Became a major land power Led the Peloponnesian League
Values & Lifestyle Spartans were militaristic and aggressive Valued courage and strength “Spartan” means sternly disciplined
Society in Sparta… - A very RIGID social structure was followed in Sparta. -All male citizens had to become soldiers. At the age of 7, boys went to military school. Boys were taught to suffer pain without complaining. At the age of 20, they begin military service and sent to the frontier areas of the city-state. Men expected to marry by the age of 30 years old. At 60, men can retire from the army! Women were also trained to fight to protect the city-state. -If a baby is born unhealthy or with deformities, that baby is abandoned and left on a hillside to die or thrown off a cliff. -WOMEN could inherit property in Sparta, so women were viewed better than in other Greek city-states, but their main role was running the household. Women were expected to obey men. Women were also allowed to participate in some sporting events. Women expected to marry by the age of 19. -Only 10% of the population of Sparta (those men of true Spartan heritage) had any benefits in society. -People had little personal possessions (clothing, food) in Sparta. -There were public BEATINGS and torture.