7Freud’s theory of dreams Freud believed that nothingwe did occurred by chance; every action and thought is motivated by our unconscious at some level.While we try to repress our urges and impulses they have a way of coming to the surface in disguised forms – such as dreams.
8Freud understood the symbolic nature of dreams and believed dreams were a direct connect to our unconscious.Freud was preoccupied with sexual content in dreams.
9Thoughts repressed during the day also have a way of being fulfilled in your dreams. Freud believed that every imagery and symbol that appears in a dream have a sexual connotation. Anxiety dreams were seen as a sign of repressed sexual impulses
10Adler’s theory of dreams Alfred Adler ( ) believed that dreams should be brought into our waking life and interpreted in order to understand our waking problems.He saw that you can draw resources from your dream and incorporate them into solving waking problems. Adler saw dreams as a way of overcompensating for your shortcomings in your waking life.
11Activation-Synthesis Model States that dreams represent random and meaningless neural activityStates that the pons sends out millions of nerve impulses and the cortex tries to make sense of these signals.May create feelings, emotions, random movements, perceptions and meaningless images
12Problem-solving view – work out problems over the course of the night CartwrightProblem-solving view – work out problems over the course of the night
13Being attacked or pursued- procrastination Dream ThemesFalling – failingBeing attacked or pursued- procrastinationSchool, teachers, studying – dreaming of greatnessArriving too late – need I say more? (actually, failure)Being naked in public (vulnerability)
14Sleep apneaMost Common Symptoms-Loud Snoring -Waking up non refreshed and having trouble staying awake during the day -Waking up with headaches -Waking up during the night sometimes with the sensation of choking -Waking up sweating
15Mild Sleep Apnea is usually treated by - losing weight, sleeping on your side are often recommended. There are oral mouth devices (that help keep the airway open) on the market that may help to reduce snoring in three different way. Sleep Apnea is a progressive condition (gets worse as you age) and should not be taken lightly.
16Types of Sleep apneaObstructive Sleep Apnea is the most common type and is due to an obstruction in the throat during sleep. The pauses in breathing may be approx. 10 to 60 seconds between loud snores. The narrowing of the upper airway can be a result of several factors including inherent physical characteristics, excess weight, and alcohol consumption before sleep.
17Types of sleep apneaCentral Sleep Apnea - caused by a delay in the signal form the brain to breath . With both obstructive and central apnea you must wake up briefly to breathe, sometimes hundreds of times during the night. Usually there is no memory of these brief awakenings, however, the person will report being very tired. WHY???
18NarcolepsySymptomsExcessive sleepiness. -Temporary decrease or loss of muscle control, especially when getting excited. -Vivid dream-like images when drifting off to sleep or waking up. -Waking up unable to move or talk for a brief time.
19TREATMENT: There is no cure for narcolepsy TREATMENT: There is no cure for narcolepsy. The excessive daytime sleepiness may be treated with stimulant drugs. Basic lifestyle adjustments such as keeping a good sleep schedule, improving diet, increasing exercise and avoiding "exciting" situations may also help to reduce the effects of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy.
20How much sleep does a person need? Insomnia-Difficulty falling asleep -No problem falling asleep but difficulty staying asleep (many awakenings) -Waking up too earlyHow much sleep does a person need?Enough to feel alert during the day. Typically 7 to 9 hours (varies from person to person) of good quality sleep.
21Transient and short-term insomnia generally occur in people who are temporarily experiencing one or more of the following:- stress - environmental noise - extreme temperatures change in the surrounding environment - sleep/wake schedule problems such as those due to jet lag - medication side effects
22Treatment of insomniaRelaxation Therapy. There are specific and effective techniques that can reduce or eliminate anxiety and body tension. As a result, the person's mind is able to stop "racing," the muscles can relax, and restful sleep can occur.
23Sleep Restriction. Some people suffering from insomnia spend too much time in bed unsuccessfully trying to sleep.They may benefit from a sleep restriction program that at first allows only a few hours of sleep during the night. Gradually the time is increased until a more normal night's sleep is achieved.
24Reconditioning. Another treatment that may help some people with insomnia is to recondition them to associate the bed and bedtime with sleep.For most people, this means not using their beds for any activities other than sleep and sex (some experts even say using the bed for sex can cause performance anxiety which could lead to insomnia).
25Reconditioning Go to bed only when sleepy. If unable to fall asleep, the person is told to get up, stay up until sleepy, and then return to bed.Avoid napsWake up and go to bed at the same time each day.Eventually the person's body will be conditioned to associate the bed and bedtime with sleep.
26Pseudo-insomniaThese are people who often do, in fact, get enough sleep, but they tend to misjudge the amount that they got.This is often because of REM deprivationHealthoogy
27Night terrorsUsually occur in stage 3 or 4 – occur during 1st part of nightChild usually displays a piercing scream, followed by sudden wakefulness and sympathetic nervous system is activatedThe child is very difficult to calm down and may need several minutes to awaken
28Night terrors occur in approximately 3-7% of children between the ages of 4-12 Seems to disappear by adolescence but may require therapyOften do not remember what it was that they were dreaming about
29NightmaresOccur during REM sleep, so we tend to see them occur more towards the 3rd and 4th cycle (not stage) of sleepWhen the person awakes, they often remember the nightmare in detailAlthough the nightmare ends upon waking, the anxiety often persists – often due to anxiety
30Sleepwalking (somnambulism) Usually occurs in stages 3 and 4 (deep nRem) and consists of getting up and walking while sound asleep.Sleepwalkers generally have poor coordination, are clumsy, but can engage in very limited conversation and have no memory of sleepwalkingAshley remind me of my kids sleepwalking
31Sleepwalking is more common in childhood, however, there are some adults who may sleepwalk, although this may be due to sleep dep., stress, or mental problems.
32Some tips to better sleep Give yourself "permission" to go to bed. As hard as it may be to put away your "to do" list, make sleep a "priority." You'll thank yourself in the morning. Unwind early in the evening. Try to deal with worries and distractions several hours before bedtime.
33Develop a sleep ritual. Doing the same things each night just before bed signals your body to settle down for the night. Keep regular hours. Keep your biological clock in check by going to bed around the same time each night and waking up close to the same time each morning – even on weekends.
34Create a restful place to sleep Create a restful place to sleep. Sleep in a cool, dark room that is free from noises that may disturb your sleep. Sleep on a comfortable, supportive mattress and foundation. It's difficult to sleep on a bed that's too small, too soft, too hard, or too old.
35Exercise regularly. Regular exercise can help relieve daily tension and stress – but don't exercise too close to bedtime or you may have trouble falling asleep. Cut down on stimulants. Consuming stimulants, such as caffeine, in the evening can make it more difficult to fall asleep.
36Don't smoke. Smokers take longer to fall asleep and wake up more often during the night. Reduce alcohol intake. Drinking alcohol shortly before bedtime interrupts and fragments sleep.
37Hypnosis: myth and reality Mostly just compliance -Willful fakingRealityHighly motivated subjects are often hypnotizedPhysiological responses indicate subjects are not lying
38MythSubjects in a sleeplike statePeople who are hypnotized often lose control of themselvesHypnosis may help a person remember the past more accuratelyRealitySubjects are emitting alpha waves-awake but restingSubjects have been able to say no to commands under hypnosisSubject’s memory is often muddled between memory and fantasy
39MeditationAbility to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary controlAlpha and theta waves become prominent in a state of meditationAppears to heighten prefrontal activity and decrease somatosensory activity
40Health benefits of meditating Associated with feelings of:HappinessHigher self-esteemSense of self-controlReduces stressReduces levels of anxietyLowers blood pressureDecrease risk of heart attacks and strokes
41These type of drugs change one’s mood and alters perceptions Psychoactive DrugsThese type of drugs change one’s mood and alters perceptionsDrugs can have aBiological effectExpectancy effect (what does the user think will happen?)
42Problems with drug use Neuroadaptation- When the brain changes in such a way that the user begins to crave the drug in larger quantities (tolerance)
44Problems with drug useAddiction occurs when the user continues to use a substance even though it may not be pleasurable anymore
45Drug-Induced States of Consciousness Drug effects on consciousness depend on:Biological actions of the drugUsually involve drug action at brain synapsesExpectations of drug effect (what effect are you expecting from the drug?)Drug classesStimulants (amphetamine, cocaine)Depressants (including alcohol)Hallucinogens (LSD)Marijuana
46Drug-Altered Consciousness Stimulants Stimulate sympathetic nervous system and produce optimism and energyCaffeine, Cocaine (marijuana of the Sativa strain)DepressantsSlow down behavior & thoughtsAlcoholBarbituratesOpiates(marijuana of the Indica strain)HallucinogensDistort visual and auditory perceptionLSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide), marijuana
47Drugs and Consciousness Physical DependenceA physiological need for a drug marked by:Unpleasant withdrawal symptomsTolerancePsychological DependenceA psychological need to use a drugE.g. to relieve negative emotions
48Psychoactive Drugs Sedatives and Depressants Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functionsAlcohol, barbiturates, opiates,marijuana, valium
49Psychoactive Drugs Depressants 1. Alcohol-relaxes person by slowing down sympathetic nervous systemaffects motor skills, judgment, and memory reduces self awareness2. Barbiturates (tranquilizers)drugs that depress the activity of thecentral nervous system, reducinganxiety but impairing memory andjudgment: Amytal; Florinal; Nembutal; Seconal; Tuinal; Phenobarbital; Pentobarbital
50Psychoactive Drugs- Depressants 3. Opiates and narcoticsPain killers (oxycontin/oxycodone/percoset)Opium and its derivatives(morphine and heroin)Opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxietyWith overuse the brain may stop producing endorphins – this may result in an overdoseHighly addictive
51Psychoactive Drugs Stimulants *Drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions* caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, methamphetamines (speed) and Ecstasy* Speed up body functions
52Psychoactive Drugs- Stimulants AmphetaminesDrugs that stimulate neuralactivity, causing activation of sympathetic nervous systemAssociated with increase ofenergy and mood changes-cocaine, for example, depletes the brain of monoamines
53StimulantsMethamphetamine- -parent drug is amphetamines but this class has a greater effect -allows for the release of dopamine into the brain -give person about 8 hrs of energy and euphoria, however, it is followed by: irritability depression insomnia violent outbursts hypertension
54Stimulants Ecstasy Functions as a stimulant AND a mild hallucinogen Releases dopamine and serotoninWhile it makes the user feel good, it can lead to high blood pressure, dehydration and death
55Psychoactive Drugs-stimulants CocaineEffects depend on dosage,form, expectations, personalityand situationcoca leavespowderCrackCocaine may increase aggressive behaviors and emotional disturbances
56Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens Psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptionsand evoke sensory images inthe absence of sensory inputLSDMDMA (Ecstasy)-more of a stimulant but acts like a mild hallcuinogenMescaline
57Psychoactive Drugs LSD Lysergic Acid Diethylamide A powerful hallucinogenic drugAKA acidTHCThe major active ingredient in marijuanaTriggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinationsThe more often one uses marijuana as an adolescent, the more likely the drug will increase feelings of anxiety or depression
58MarijuanaMay have adverse effects on areas of the brain responsible for memory and emotionHippocampusLimbic system