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Variations in Consciousness

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Presentation on theme: "Variations in Consciousness"— Presentation transcript:

1 Variations in Consciousness

2 Levels of Awareness Conscious Subconscious Unconscious

3 How we measure levels of awareness
EEG EMG EOG All used in sleep research

4 Circadian Rhythms 24 hour or 25 hour? Ignoring circadian rhythms

5 Awake (resting) Stage 1 sleep Stage 2 sleep Stage 3 sleep
Alpha waves Beta waves Stage 1 sleep Theta waves Stage 2 sleep Sleep spindle k complex Seconds Stage 3 sleep Delta waves Stage 4 sleep Delta waves REM sleep Theta waves Beta waves

6 Fig9_5

7 Freud’s theory of dreams
Freud believed that nothing we did occurred by chance; every action and thought is motivated by our unconscious at some level. While we try to repress our urges and impulses they have a way of coming to the surface in disguised forms – such as dreams.

8 Freud understood the symbolic nature of dreams and believed dreams were a direct connect to our unconscious. Freud was preoccupied with sexual content in dreams. 

9 Thoughts repressed during the day also have a way of being fulfilled in your dreams. Freud believed that every imagery and symbol that appears in a dream have a sexual connotation.  Anxiety dreams were seen as a sign of repressed sexual impulses

10 Adler’s theory of dreams
Alfred Adler ( ) believed that dreams should be brought into our waking life and interpreted in order to understand our waking problems. He saw that you can draw resources from your dream and incorporate them into solving waking problems.  Adler saw dreams as a way of overcompensating for your shortcomings in your waking life.

11 Activation-Synthesis Model
States that dreams represent random and meaningless neural activity States that the pons sends out millions of nerve impulses and the cortex tries to make sense of these signals. May create feelings, emotions, random movements, perceptions and meaningless images

12 Problem-solving view – work out problems over the course of the night
Cartwright Problem-solving view – work out problems over the course of the night

13 Being attacked or pursued- procrastination
Dream Themes Falling – failing Being attacked or pursued- procrastination School, teachers, studying – dreaming of greatness Arriving too late – need I say more? (actually, failure) Being naked in public (vulnerability)

14 Sleep apnea Most Common Symptoms -Loud Snoring -Waking up non refreshed and having trouble staying awake during the day -Waking up with headaches -Waking up during the night sometimes with the sensation of choking -Waking up sweating

15 Mild Sleep Apnea is usually treated by - losing weight, sleeping on your side are often recommended. There are oral mouth devices (that help keep the airway open) on the market that may help to reduce snoring in three different way. Sleep Apnea is a progressive condition (gets worse as you age) and should not be taken lightly.

16 Types of Sleep apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the most common type and is due to an obstruction in the throat during sleep. The pauses in breathing may be approx. 10 to 60 seconds between loud snores. The narrowing of the upper airway can be a result of several factors including inherent physical characteristics, excess weight, and alcohol consumption before sleep.

17 Types of sleep apnea Central Sleep Apnea - caused by a delay in the signal form the brain to breath . With both obstructive and central apnea you must wake up briefly to breathe, sometimes hundreds of times during the night. Usually there is no memory of these brief awakenings, however, the person will report being very tired. WHY???

18 Narcolepsy Symptoms Excessive sleepiness. -Temporary decrease or loss of muscle control, especially when getting excited. -Vivid dream-like images when drifting off to sleep or waking up. -Waking up unable to move or talk for a brief time.

19 TREATMENT: There is no cure for narcolepsy
TREATMENT: There is no cure for narcolepsy. The excessive daytime sleepiness may be treated with stimulant drugs. Basic lifestyle adjustments such as keeping a good sleep schedule, improving diet, increasing exercise and avoiding "exciting" situations may also help to reduce the effects of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy.

20 How much sleep does a person need?
Insomnia -Difficulty falling asleep -No problem falling asleep but difficulty staying asleep (many awakenings) -Waking up too early How much sleep does a person need? Enough to feel alert during the day. Typically 7 to 9 hours (varies from person to person) of good quality sleep.

21 Transient and short-term insomnia generally occur in people who are temporarily experiencing one or more of the following: - stress - environmental noise - extreme temperatures change in the surrounding environment - sleep/wake schedule problems such as those due to jet lag - medication side effects

22 Treatment of insomnia Relaxation Therapy. There are specific and effective techniques that can reduce or eliminate anxiety and body tension. As a result, the person's mind is able to stop "racing," the muscles can relax, and restful sleep can occur.

23 Sleep Restriction. Some people suffering from insomnia spend too much time in bed unsuccessfully trying to sleep. They may benefit from a sleep restriction program that at first allows only a few hours of sleep during the night. Gradually the time is increased until a more normal night's sleep is achieved.

24 Reconditioning. Another treatment that may help some people with insomnia is to recondition them to associate the bed and bedtime with sleep. For most people, this means not using their beds for any activities other than sleep and sex (some experts even say using the bed for sex can cause performance anxiety which could lead to insomnia).

25 Reconditioning Go to bed only when sleepy.
If unable to fall asleep, the person is told to get up, stay up until sleepy, and then return to bed. Avoid naps Wake up and go to bed at the same time each day. Eventually the person's body will be conditioned to associate the bed and bedtime with sleep.

26 Pseudo-insomnia These are people who often do, in fact, get enough sleep, but they tend to misjudge the amount that they got. This is often because of REM deprivation Healthoogy

27 Night terrors Usually occur in stage 3 or 4 – occur during 1st part of night Child usually displays a piercing scream, followed by sudden wakefulness and sympathetic nervous system is activated The child is very difficult to calm down and may need several minutes to awaken

28 Night terrors occur in approximately 3-7% of children between the ages of 4-12
Seems to disappear by adolescence but may require therapy Often do not remember what it was that they were dreaming about

29 Nightmares Occur during REM sleep, so we tend to see them occur more towards the 3rd and 4th cycle (not stage) of sleep When the person awakes, they often remember the nightmare in detail Although the nightmare ends upon waking, the anxiety often persists – often due to anxiety

30 Sleepwalking (somnambulism)
Usually occurs in stages 3 and 4 (deep nRem) and consists of getting up and walking while sound asleep. Sleepwalkers generally have poor coordination, are clumsy, but can engage in very limited conversation and have no memory of sleepwalking Ashley remind me of my kids sleepwalking

31 Sleepwalking is more common in childhood, however, there are some adults who may sleepwalk, although this may be due to sleep dep., stress, or mental problems.

32 Some tips to better sleep
Give yourself "permission" to go to bed. As hard as it may be to put away your "to do" list, make sleep a "priority." You'll thank yourself in the morning.   Unwind early in the evening. Try to deal with worries and distractions several hours before bedtime.

33 Develop a sleep ritual. Doing the same things each night just before bed signals your body to settle down for the night.   Keep regular hours. Keep your biological clock in check by going to bed around the same time each night and waking up close to the same time each morning – even on weekends.  

34 Create a restful place to sleep
Create a restful place to sleep. Sleep in a cool, dark room that is free from noises that may disturb your sleep.   Sleep on a comfortable, supportive mattress and foundation. It's difficult to sleep on a bed that's too small, too soft, too hard, or too old.  

35 Exercise regularly. Regular exercise can help relieve daily tension and stress – but don't exercise too close to bedtime or you may have trouble falling asleep.   Cut down on stimulants. Consuming stimulants, such as caffeine, in the evening can make it more difficult to fall asleep.

36 Don't smoke. Smokers take longer to fall asleep and wake up more often during the night.  
Reduce alcohol intake. Drinking alcohol shortly before bedtime interrupts and fragments sleep.

37 Hypnosis: myth and reality
Mostly just compliance - Willful faking Reality Highly motivated subjects are often hypnotized Physiological responses indicate subjects are not lying

38 Myth Subjects in a sleeplike state People who are hypnotized often lose control of themselves Hypnosis may help a person remember the past more accurately Reality Subjects are emitting alpha waves-awake but resting Subjects have been able to say no to commands under hypnosis Subject’s memory is often muddled between memory and fantasy

39 Meditation Ability to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control Alpha and theta waves become prominent in a state of meditation Appears to heighten prefrontal activity and decrease somatosensory activity

40 Health benefits of meditating
Associated with feelings of: Happiness Higher self-esteem Sense of self-control Reduces stress Reduces levels of anxiety Lowers blood pressure Decrease risk of heart attacks and strokes

41 These type of drugs change one’s mood and alters perceptions
Psychoactive Drugs These type of drugs change one’s mood and alters perceptions Drugs can have a Biological effect Expectancy effect (what does the user think will happen?)

42 Problems with drug use Neuroadaptation-
When the brain changes in such a way that the user begins to crave the drug in larger quantities (tolerance)


44 Problems with drug use Addiction occurs when the user continues to use a substance even though it may not be pleasurable anymore

45 Drug-Induced States of Consciousness
Drug effects on consciousness depend on: Biological actions of the drug Usually involve drug action at brain synapses Expectations of drug effect (what effect are you expecting from the drug?) Drug classes Stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine) Depressants (including alcohol) Hallucinogens (LSD) Marijuana

46 Drug-Altered Consciousness Stimulants
Stimulate sympathetic nervous system and produce optimism and energy Caffeine, Cocaine (marijuana of the Sativa strain) Depressants Slow down behavior & thoughts Alcohol Barbiturates Opiates (marijuana of the Indica strain) Hallucinogens Distort visual and auditory perception LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide), marijuana

47 Drugs and Consciousness
Physical Dependence A physiological need for a drug marked by: Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms Tolerance Psychological Dependence A psychological need to use a drug E.g. to relieve negative emotions

48 Psychoactive Drugs Sedatives and Depressants
Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions Alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, marijuana, valium

49 Psychoactive Drugs Depressants
1. Alcohol-relaxes person by slowing down sympathetic nervous system affects motor skills, judgment, and memory reduces self awareness 2. Barbiturates (tranquilizers) drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment: Amytal; Florinal; Nembutal; Seconal; Tuinal; Phenobarbital; Pentobarbital

50 Psychoactive Drugs- Depressants
3. Opiates and narcotics Pain killers (oxycontin/oxycodone/percoset) Opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) Opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety With overuse the brain may stop producing endorphins – this may result in an overdose Highly addictive

51 Psychoactive Drugs Stimulants
*Drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions * caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, methamphetamines (speed) and Ecstasy * Speed up body functions

52 Psychoactive Drugs- Stimulants
Amphetamines Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing activation of sympathetic nervous system Associated with increase of energy and mood changes-cocaine, for example, depletes the brain of monoamines

53 Stimulants Methamphetamine- -parent drug is amphetamines but this class has a greater effect -allows for the release of dopamine into the brain -give person about 8 hrs of energy and euphoria, however, it is followed by: irritability depression insomnia violent outbursts hypertension

54 Stimulants Ecstasy Functions as a stimulant AND a mild hallucinogen
Releases dopamine and serotonin While it makes the user feel good, it can lead to high blood pressure, dehydration and death

55 Psychoactive Drugs-stimulants
Cocaine Effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation coca leaves powder Crack Cocaine may increase aggressive behaviors and emotional disturbances

56 Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens Psychedelic (mind-manifesting)
drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input LSD MDMA (Ecstasy)-more of a stimulant but acts like a mild hallcuinogen Mescaline

57 Psychoactive Drugs LSD Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
A powerful hallucinogenic drug AKA acid THC The major active ingredient in marijuana Triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations The more often one uses marijuana as an adolescent, the more likely the drug will increase feelings of anxiety or depression

58 Marijuana May have adverse effects on areas of the brain responsible for memory and emotion Hippocampus Limbic system

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