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These slides were created by Dr. Gordon Vessels, but some draw from those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson in 1998.

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Presentation on theme: "These slides were created by Dr. Gordon Vessels, but some draw from those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson in 1998."— Presentation transcript:

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2 These slides were created by Dr. Gordon Vessels, but some draw from those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson in

3 Sleep and Dreams “Sometimes, a cigar is just a cigar.” Freud, on the meaning of dreams “Sometimes, a cigar is just a cigar.” Freud, on the meaning of dreams These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

4 Rhythm of Sleep (the biological clock) Circadian Rhythm These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

5 Rhythm of Sleep (the biological clock) Circadian Rhythm Body Temp Sleep/Wakefulness Mood Body Temp Sleep/Wakefulness Mood All are linked to a ± 25 hour day These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

6 Five Stages of Sleep (~ 90 min) 2 min - hallucinations 20 min - sleeptalking may begin at Stage 2 { 30 min - sleepwalking 10+ min - Dreams!

7 Sleep Cycles Characteristics Awake & Relaxed..... Alpha waves Stage 1 Sleep Dream-like (~ 2 min) Stage 2 Sleep Sleep Spindles (~ 20 min) (sleep talking) Stages 3 & Delta waves (~ 30 min) (sleep walking, hard to awaken) REM Sleep Like Stage 1 (~ min) (paradoxical sleep) (deep muscle paralysis) 5 Stages of Sleep Everyone Dreams! These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

8 Effects of Sleep Deprivation Impaired Creativity Impaired Concentration Irritability Slowed Performance So WHY? MAYBE: Keep Us From Harm Consolidate Memories Conserve Energy Aid Growth Process Why Do We Sleep? These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

9 Most dreams are of ordinary things. BUT Lucid Dreams are so vivid they SEEM REAL. The Stuff of Which Dreams Are Made These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

10 The Stuff of Which Dreams Are Made Does Dreaming Remove Us From Reality? Not Entirely. We retain some awareness of our external world. Does Dreaming Remove Us From Reality? Not Entirely. We retain some awareness of our external world. BUT... we don’t remember info 5 minutes prior to sleep. BUT... we don’t remember info 5 minutes prior to sleep. These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

11 But WHY Do We Dream? Latent Content may actually be Unconscious Drives & Wishes Dreams may help sort & fix our days’ experiences in memory Dreams result from random neural activity originating in brainstem Latent Content may actually be Unconscious Drives & Wishes Dreams may help sort & fix our days’ experiences in memory Dreams result from random neural activity originating in brainstem What if we couldn’t dream? These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

12 Why Do We Daydream? Temporary escape from reality; Help prepare us for future events; Substitute for impulsive behavior. Temporary escape from reality; Help prepare us for future events; Substitute for impulsive behavior.

13 What is it? A state of apparently heightened suggestibility What is it? A state of apparently heightened suggestibility Post- Hypnotic Amnesia Temporary memory loss (Maybe) Post- Hypnotic Amnesia Temporary memory loss (Maybe) You are getting sleepy… You are getting sleepy…

14 These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

15 Hypnosis As Therapy Post-Hypnotic Suggestions - Useful? Suggestions to be carried out after hypnosis Post-Hypnotic Suggestions - Useful? Suggestions to be carried out after hypnosis Stop Smoking & Nail Biting? NO more successful than positive thinking. Stop or Alleviate Pain? YES Just ask your Dentist! Dissociation or Selective Attention These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

16 Drugs and Consciousness What types of drugs influence consciousness? and How do they work? Psychoactive Drugs Chemicals that change perceptions & moods Affect Brain Chemistry & User Expectations These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

17 Dependence and Addiction Tolerance Continued use of a drug requires larger doses to equal the same effect Withdrawal In the absence of the drug, user may feel physical pain & cravings Physical Psychological Dependence These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

18 Psychoactive Drugs Depressants Calm neural activity Slow body functions Stimulants Excite neural activity Arouse body functions Hallucinogens Distort exisiting perceptions Evoke perception w/o sensation These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

19 Stimulants Increase heart rate and breathing rate Pupils Dilate Appetite Diminshes Tiredness Headaches Irritability Depression Caffeine CaffeineNicotineAmphetaminesCocaine These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

20 Depressants Alcohol - Barbituates - Opiates Decreases Sympathetic Nervous System Activity Decreases Sympathetic Nervous System Activity Focuses Attention on Immediate Situation Focuses Attention on Immediate Situation Impairs Judgment and Inhibitions Impairs Judgment and Inhibitions Disrupts Processing of Info into Memory (not short-term recall or existing LTM) Disrupts Processing of Info into Memory (not short-term recall or existing LTM) These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at

21 Hallucinogens LSD PCP Marijuana Common Perceptual Distortions & Hallucinations Psychadelic Drugs Loss of Oxygen to Brain Extreme Sensory Deprivation Simple Geometric Forms Meaningful Images / Tunnel Feeling of Separation from Body Psychadelics These slides are visually enhanced versions of those created by Dr. Kevin Richardson, which are available at


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