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Altered States of Consciousness

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1 Altered States of Consciousness
Chapter 7 Altered States of Consciousness

2 Section 1 - Sleep and Dreams
We spend 1/3 of our lives sleeping Sleep is a state of altered consciousness characterized by brain activity Consciousness - state of awareness, many levels of this Why we sleep? Theories Charge our batteries Conserve energy Night pattern - historically to keep us safe Clear our minds of useless information

3 Stages of Sleep Awake state (beta brain waves - rapid)
EEG - measures brain waves Stage 1 - Theta brain waves - fairly alert , just before going to sleep. Breathing irregular, twilight state - electrical activity in the brain slows, images and thoughts of the day. Lasts about 10 minutes

4 Stages Stage 2 and 3 - higher amplitude, lower frequency brain waves - increasingly deeper sleep Stage 4 - deepest sleep (delta brain waves - slow, lazy brain waves). About an hour after you fall asleep. Talking and walking in your sleep and bed wetting occur during this stage but not remembered.

5 Stages After you hit stage 4 you will go to REM sleep - Rapid Eye Movement or dream sleep and back REM - pulse increases, breathing irregular, increase in adrenal glands and hormones When REM is over you go backwards to 1 again Go through the sleep cycle every 90 minutes Length of REM increases until you finally wake up 75 % of sleep is in NREM

6 Sect. 1 (Sleep) Nightmares - unpleasant dreams (REM)
Night terrors - sleep disruptions that occur during Stage 4 - screaming, panic, confusion Dreams - everyone dreams, many don’t remember them First dreams of the night - day’s activities Later more explicit, longer especially those in REM

7 Sect. 1 cont. Circadian rhythm - the rhythm of activity lasting one day Biological clock programmed to regulate responses Our cycle is hours Sleep Disorders - Insomnia - prolonged inability to sleep Sleep Apnea - trouble breathing while asleep, usually a physical problem, snoring is a sign Narcolepsy - falling asleep or feeling sleepy

8 Sect. 2 - hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation
Hypnosis - state of consciousness, not sleep / narrowed attention / suggestible Theories of hypnosis 1. Theodore Barber - not a special state of consciousness but the power of suggestion 2. Ernest Hilgard - special hypnotic state Neodissociation theory - you are reporting what’s happening in your inner self 3. Accepting the role the hypnotist is giving you

9 Section 2 continued Posthypnotic suggestion - hypnosis influences later behavior , like smoking Biofeedback - control bodily states with machines Try to keep heart rate below 80 by keeping a light off a machine Meditation - attention to clear mind and produce relaxation

10 Section 3 - Drugs and Consciousness
Psychoactive drug - chemicals that affect the nervous system and alter consciousness Ranging from caffeine to LSD Like hormones, drugs are carried by blood to various parts of the body Hook on to nerve cells and begin sending their own messages

11 Drugs Marijuana - dried leaves of hemp (cannabis)
THC - active ingredient Not physically addictive but psychologically - creates dependency Lowers IQ and hinders memory Hallucinations - perceptions that have no direct external cause Hallucinogens - drugs that produce the above LSD - potential psychedelic drug that distorts perception

12 Other drugs Opiates - narcotics
Opium , morphine, heroine and pain reduction - causes physical addiction Alcohol - most widely used and abused drug

13 Effects of drugs on the human body

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