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1 VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Enteric Disease Control Dr. Alex Ramirez Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Enteric Disease Control Dr. Alex Ramirez Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Enteric Disease Control Dr. Alex Ramirez Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

2 2 Neonatal Diarrhea

3 3 Neonatal Immunity Age of immunocompetency Age of immunocompetency –Around day 70 of gestation –Antigen dependent Colostral immunity Colostral immunity –IgG primarily  systemic antibodies –Acquisition stops: no more produced, no more absorbed –Titer in sow at farrowing = titer of pig at 4 weeks of age Lactogenic immunity Lactogenic immunity –IgA  local antibodies in the gut –Milk origin

4 4 Neonatal Diarrhea Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis –E. coli  K88, K99, F41, 987, etc. –Viral  Rota  TGE –Coccidiosis –Clostrium spp  Clostridium perfringes type C & A  Clostridium difficlile

5 5 Coccidiosis

6 6 Coccidiosis Usually only a problem in farrowing or early nursery Usually only a problem in farrowing or early nursery Isospora suis Isospora suis Minimum age = 5 days Minimum age = 5 days No approved treatments No approved treatments –Marquis (15% w/w ponazuril) Antiprotozoal Oral Paste by Bayer

7 7 Clostridiums

8 8 Clostridiums Clostridium perfringens – Rot gut Clostridium perfringens – Rot gut –Toxin driven  C = traditional more common  A = “newer” –Acute: blood –Chronic: rope gut –DDx = coccidiosis –Prevention  Vaccination Pre-farrow  Feed sows BMD 14 days pre-farrow & lactation

9 Clostridium perfringens 9

10 10 Clostridiums Clostridium difficile Clostridium difficile –Incidence –Antibiotic use –Discontinue antibiotics –Re-establish normal microbial flora

11 11 Neonatal Diarrhea Treat baby pigs Treat baby pigs –Treat whole litter –Be aggressive – dehydration Environment Environment –Temperature –Moisture Prevention  Sows Prevention  Sows –Vaccination –Oral feedback

12 12 Post-Weaning Diarrhea (PWD)

13 13 Post Weaning Diarrhea- PWD Classic PWD caused by E. coli Classic PWD caused by E. coli –Often hemolytic –F18 pillus antigen type is most common –Pigs can be bred to be resistant: gene probe selection –TGE after an outbreak can persist in the nursery and will mimic PWD –Historically right after weaning, now 2-3 weeks into nursery (withdrawal of animal proteins?)  SBM hypersensitivity  Transition diets especially pellet  ground

14 14 Post Weaning Diarrhea- PWD Classic PWD caused by E. coli Classic PWD caused by E. coli –Can also have acute septicemic disease resulting in sudden death in nursery and suckling pigs –Edema disease: shiga-like toxins  Vascular effects  CNS signs: focal encephalomalacia –Acute deaths –Poor doers –PCR organism to check for genetic codes  Pilli –F18, K88, K99, 987, F41  Toxins –Sta, Stb, LT, Stx2e

15 15 Post Weaning Diarrhea- PWD

16 16 Post Weaning Diarrhea- PWD Pre-disposers Pre-disposers –Chilling: cold floors, drafts –Poor diet quality  Ingredient quality: fish meal  Pellet integrity  Least cost formulations –Feed changes, medication changes, simultaneous feed and medication changes –Poor sanitation between groups: some plastic floors are hard to clean –Feeding mats moving to disposable/biodegradable Major problem in some large systems Major problem in some large systems

17 17 PWD: Therapy Enteric infection  oral medication Enteric infection  oral medication –“ Nutritional” prevention via diet or water  Plasma proteins (7.5% of diet) until 15#’s –May break upon withdrawal; continual at lower level until 25#’s  Plasma proteins in water (Solutein- APC)  Zinc oxide –<15# - 3,000 ppm –15-30# - 2,000 ppm  Citric acid (1# per gallon of stock solution) or other organic acids  Vitamins and electrolytes in water: supportive

18 18 PWD: Therapy –Antibiotic therapy in feed for prevention  Apralan (150 gram per ton)  Mecadox (50 gram per ton)  Denagard (35 gram per ton) Plus (400 grams CTC) –Antibiotics in water for prevention or treatment  4-5 day treatment  Spectinomycin (5 mg/#)  Gentamycin (1-2 mg/#)  Neomycin (2-10 mg/#)  Amoxicillin, Ampicillin –Antibiotics – “red butt” condition

19 19 PWD Rule-outs Carryover from farrowing Carryover from farrowing –Coccidiosis –Rotavirus Endemic TGE Endemic TGE –Plus or minus carryover from farrowing –Loss of lactogenic immunity at weaning plus environmental exposure  TGE

20 20 PWD Treatments Prevention Prevention –Environment –Sanitation –Vaccination  Oral F18 –Feed –Antibiotics  Feed  Water

21 21 Ileitis (PPE, PIA)

22 22 Ileitis Caused by Lawsonia intracellularis Caused by Lawsonia intracellularis Porcine Proliferative Enteropathy (PPE) Porcine Proliferative Enteropathy (PPE) Three main forms Three main forms –PIA: porcine intestinal adenomatosis  Ileal villi develop secondary and tertiary branches  thickening of the ileal mucosa –Necrotic form: fibrinonecrotic membrane forms on ileal mucosa, may extend to colon –Acute hemorrhagic form  sudden death  Most common in gilts and sows

23 23 Ileitis Clinical signs Clinical signs –Poor doing pig  Mal-absorption  Protein losing enteropathy –Diarrhea: orange tinge suggestive of partially digested blood, over blood with acute hemorrhagic form  Many times soft or loose stools are over interpreted –Increase number of cull or light weight pigs

24 24 Ileitis Lesions

25 25 Ileitis: Treatment Antibiotics that work: Tylan, CTC, Lincomycin, Denagard (Tiamulin), Mecadox Antibiotics that work: Tylan, CTC, Lincomycin, Denagard (Tiamulin), Mecadox Acute hemorrhagic form in older finishers/gilts/sows Acute hemorrhagic form in older finishers/gilts/sows –Inject with Tylan (10 mg/# SID) –Inject with Lincomycin (5 mg/# SID) –Follow-up with 100 gram/ton Tylan in the feed for 2-3 weeks Outbreak in growing pigs Outbreak in growing pigs –Inject severe cases with Tylan (dose as above) –Water soluble Tylan –Water soluble Denegard

26 26 Ileitis Control MLV product from BI MLV product from BI –Timing and handling of vaccine is critical –Oral administration via medicator  Administer vaccine over 4 hour period  No feed medication for 3 days prior to vaccination  Starter pack - binds chlorine in water and colors water blue Monitoring stools is commonly done to “titrate” antibiotic control programs Monitoring stools is commonly done to “titrate” antibiotic control programs

27 27 Ileitis Treatment Vaccination Vaccination Prevention though antibiotics Prevention though antibiotics –Feed –Water Don’t forget market-ready pigs! Don’t forget market-ready pigs!

28 Don’t Forget PCV2  Diarrhea similar to Ileitis

29 Swine Dysentery

30 Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Characteristics – –Mucohemorrhagic diarrhea – –Marked inflammation – –Large intestine only (cecum and/or colon) – –Grow finishing pigs (usually >50 lbs) Spirochetal colitis  B. pilosicoli

31 Swine Dysentary Prevention – –Negative replacement stock – –Wean < 21 days – –Rodent control Treatment – –Medication   Feed: Mecadox, Lincocin, Denegard – –Sanitation – –Rodent control

32 32 Salmonellosis

33 33 Salmonellosis Primarily Salmonella cholerasuis Primarily Salmonella cholerasuis –Salmonella typhimurium can cause diarrhea –Wide variety of organisms can be food borne pathogens Often stress/environment induced Often stress/environment induced Clinical signs Clinical signs –Severe lethargy (very sick): +/- fever –Purple discoloration of ears and belly = septicemia –Diarrhea: +/- blood –Pneumonia

34 34 Salmonellosis Lesions Lesions –Splenomegaly –Inflamed intestine –Pneumonia – interstitial (wet lungs) –Button ulcers on mucosal surface: primarily in colon –Hemorrhagic lymph nodes  Especially gastro-hepatic –Other signs of septicemia Diagnosis via culture Diagnosis via culture

35 35 Salmonellosis

36 36 Salmonellosis: Treatment Injectables Injectables –Naxcel (per label), Spectinomycin (ELU), Nuflor (ELU) Water medication Water medication –Neomycin, Gentamycin, Spectinomycin (ELU) –Respiratory - Nuflor Feed medication Feed medication –Mecadox (50 gram/ton) –Neomycin and Terramycin (200 gram/ton of each) –Many other options in foreign countries including quinolones

37 37 Salmonellosis Control Vaccination Vaccination –S. cholerasuis +/- S. typhimurium –MLV’s are effective  Oral  IN  IM –Killed vaccines have poor efficacy Environment is the primary focus: sanitation Environment is the primary focus: sanitation

38 38 Salmonellosis Treatment Vaccination Vaccination Antibiotics Antibiotics –Prevention – Feed –Treatment  Water  Injectable  Feed Sanitation Sanitation

39 39 Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome (HBS)

40 40 Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome Definition of syndrome: consistent clinical signs and/or lesions but cause unknown Definition of syndrome: consistent clinical signs and/or lesions but cause unknown Older (>150#) finishing pigs found dead Older (>150#) finishing pigs found dead –+/- bloated abdomen Post-mortem lesions Post-mortem lesions –Uniform hemorrhagic appearance of entire gut or small intestines only –Lumen content hemorrhagic and not clotting –No palpable volvulus of the mesenteric root

41 41 Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome

42 42 Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome Current thinking is that torsion or volvulus is primary problem: resolve in agonal state Current thinking is that torsion or volvulus is primary problem: resolve in agonal state More common in deep bellied pigs? More common in deep bellied pigs? Control via feed grade medication? Control via feed grade medication? –100 grams per ton of tetracycline with or without 30 grams per ton of BMD ( Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate ) –Added fiber to the diet Usually sporadic incidence (<1%) so hard to justify therapy costs Usually sporadic incidence (<1%) so hard to justify therapy costs

43 43 Gastric Ulcers

44 44 Gastric Ulcers Pigs will start to develop erosions of the non- glandular portion of the stomach within hours of feed removal Pigs will start to develop erosions of the non- glandular portion of the stomach within hours of feed removal –Out of feed –Sick due to something else: pneumonia Erosion can vary from superficial to complete penetrating Erosion can vary from superficial to complete penetrating Acute cases Acute cases –Pig found dead with large blood clot in stomach –Anemia – very pale

45 45 Gastric Ulcers Subacute cases Subacute cases –Pig found dead or live but very sick with blood in small intestine but no inflammation of intestine Chronic cases Chronic cases –Gaunt pig with black, tarry looking stool –Pale appearance - Anemia Lesion Lesion –Non-glandular portion of stomach where esophagus enters is eroded (pitted, indented) –Normally this surface is slightly elevated from rest of stomach mucosa

46 46 Gastric Ulcers

47 47 Gastric Ulcers Peritonitis with perforation Peritonitis with perforation –Local or generalized Pre-disposers Pre-disposers –Other diseases that caused reduced appetite: mainly respiratory –Feed not available: plugged feeder, late deliveries –Fine grind to corn (< microns) –Pellet diets Common end stage cause of finisher mortality Common end stage cause of finisher mortality

48 48 Other Diseases

49 49 Additional Information: Whipworms – outdoor production, pet pigs Whipworms – outdoor production, pet pigs Ascarids – outdoor production, pet pigs Ascarids – outdoor production, pet pigs Rectal stricture – congenital, 2ndary to salmonellosis Rectal stricture – congenital, 2ndary to salmonellosis Rectal prolapse – several techniques to repair but not a high yield procedure Rectal prolapse – several techniques to repair but not a high yield procedure

50 50 Whipworms Trichuris suis Trichuris suis Worms are visible in large intestine and cecum Worms are visible in large intestine and cecum –Must look closely or use a magnifying lens –Ileal-cecal junction if good are to look Clinical signs Clinical signs –Diarrhea +/- blood –Poor doing pigs Pre-disposers Pre-disposers –Dirt lot environment –Low protein diets Antihelminitcs – NOT Ivomec! Antihelminitcs – NOT Ivomec!

51 51 Whipworms

52 52 Ascarids: Roundworms Ascaris suum Ascaris suum Little or no consequence in confined pigs Little or no consequence in confined pigs –Lack of exposure to feces  Sows in gestation stalls and farrowing crates  Pigs on wire and cement slat floors Continuous problem in pasture raised pigs Continuous problem in pasture raised pigs –21 cycle Clinical signs and lesions Clinical signs and lesions –Poor doing pigs –Liver scars (milk spots) –Petechia on lungs in acute cases (larval migration)

53 53 Ascarids: Roundworms

54 54 Ascarids: Roundworms Pigs will develop immunity Pigs will develop immunity –Liver scars will resolve in 4-8 weeks Common scenario Common scenario –Replacement gilts raised in confinement have no immunity –Moved to heavily contaminated, outside dirt lots to kept them cycling –Larva start marching through the lung 7-10 days later  acute outbreak of respiratory disease

55 55 Internal Parasite Treatment Mandatory? Mandatory? –Many confinement herds only deworm sows 3-4 weeks pre-farrowing or at farrowing Many herds deworm young pigs that have had no chance for exposure to roundworms: wire flooring Many herds deworm young pigs that have had no chance for exposure to roundworms: wire flooring –Avermectins at weaning (okay for mange) –Banminth (pyrantel) continuously in the nursery diets With outdoor pigs, recognize risk for whipworm infestation With outdoor pigs, recognize risk for whipworm infestation –Deworm pigs several times with fenbendazol (Safe- Guard) in the feed: 9-10 and weeks of age –Double strength levamisole in water

56 56 Rectal Stricture Sequelae to: Sequelae to: –Salmonellosis –Rectal prolapse Clinical appearance Clinical appearance –“Air belly”; severe distension of abdomen –Cachexia Lesions Lesions –Stricture in rectum –Enlarged spiral colon (megacolon); +/- peritonitis

57 57 Rectal Stricture

58 58 Rectal Prolapse Primarily prolapse of mucosa Primarily prolapse of mucosa –Variable degrees  Polyp on one side  Complete circle Pre-disposers Pre-disposers –Genetics –Increased abdominal pressure  Coughing  Chilling  piling

59 59 Rectal Prolapse

60 60 Rectal Prolapse Repair Purse string: tissue still fresh, sows Purse string: tissue still fresh, sows –Replace prolapse, suture around the anus, leave an approximately ¾ inch (one finger width) opening to enable defecation Rectal ring: tissue already necrotic Rectal ring: tissue already necrotic –Various sizes, choose largest that will fit –Hold ring with clamp and position so that the “slot” in the ring is at the anus –Use elastrator band or umbilical tape to secure the ring –Trim excess tissue so that pen mates don’t bother

61 61 Rectal Prolapse Repair

62 62 Acknowledgements I would like to recognize others for their significant contributions to this presentation: I would like to recognize others for their significant contributions to this presentation: –Dr. Brad Thacker –Dr. Locke Karriker –Dr. Pat Halbur –Dr. Butch Baker

63 63 Questions ?


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