Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Enteric Disease Control

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Enteric Disease Control"— Presentation transcript:

1 VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Enteric Disease Control
Dr. Alex Ramirez Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

2 Neonatal Diarrhea

3 Neonatal Immunity Age of immunocompetency Colostral immunity
Around day 70 of gestation Antigen dependent Colostral immunity IgG primarily  systemic antibodies Acquisition stops: no more produced, no more absorbed Titer in sow at farrowing = titer of pig at 4 weeks of age Lactogenic immunity IgA  local antibodies in the gut Milk origin

4 Neonatal Diarrhea Differential diagnosis E. coli Viral Coccidiosis
K88, K99, F41, 987, etc. Viral Rota TGE Coccidiosis Clostrium spp Clostridium perfringes type C & A Clostridium difficlile

5 Coccidiosis

6 Coccidiosis Usually only a problem in farrowing or early nursery
Isospora suis Minimum age = 5 days No approved treatments Marquis (15% w/w ponazuril) Antiprotozoal Oral Paste by Bayer

7 Clostridiums

8 Clostridiums Clostridium perfringens – Rot gut Toxin driven
C = traditional more common A = “newer” Acute: blood Chronic: rope gut DDx = coccidiosis Prevention Vaccination Pre-farrow Feed sows BMD 14 days pre-farrow & lactation

9 Clostridium perfringens

10 Clostridiums Clostridium difficile Incidence Antibiotic use
Discontinue antibiotics Re-establish normal microbial flora

11 Neonatal Diarrhea Treat baby pigs Environment Prevention  Sows
Treat whole litter Be aggressive – dehydration Environment Temperature Moisture Prevention  Sows Vaccination Oral feedback

12 Post-Weaning Diarrhea (PWD)

13 Post Weaning Diarrhea- PWD
Classic PWD caused by E. coli Often hemolytic F18 pillus antigen type is most common Pigs can be bred to be resistant: gene probe selection TGE after an outbreak can persist in the nursery and will mimic PWD Historically right after weaning, now 2-3 weeks into nursery (withdrawal of animal proteins?) SBM hypersensitivity Transition diets especially pellet  ground

14 Post Weaning Diarrhea- PWD
Classic PWD caused by E. coli Can also have acute septicemic disease resulting in sudden death in nursery and suckling pigs Edema disease: shiga-like toxins Vascular effects CNS signs: focal encephalomalacia Acute deaths Poor doers PCR organism to check for genetic codes Pilli F18, K88, K99, 987, F41 Toxins Sta, Stb, LT, Stx2e

15 Post Weaning Diarrhea- PWD

16 Post Weaning Diarrhea- PWD
Pre-disposers Chilling: cold floors, drafts Poor diet quality Ingredient quality: fish meal Pellet integrity Least cost formulations Feed changes, medication changes, simultaneous feed and medication changes Poor sanitation between groups: some plastic floors are hard to clean Feeding mats moving to disposable/biodegradable Major problem in some large systems

17 PWD: Therapy Enteric infection  oral medication
“Nutritional” prevention via diet or water Plasma proteins (7.5% of diet) until 15#’s May break upon withdrawal; continual at lower level until 25#’s Plasma proteins in water (Solutein- APC) Zinc oxide <15# - 3,000 ppm 15-30# - 2,000 ppm Citric acid (1# per gallon of stock solution) or other organic acids Vitamins and electrolytes in water: supportive

18 PWD: Therapy Antibiotic therapy in feed for prevention
Apralan (150 gram per ton) Mecadox (50 gram per ton) Denagard (35 gram per ton) Plus (400 grams CTC) Antibiotics in water for prevention or treatment 4-5 day treatment Spectinomycin (5 mg/#) Gentamycin (1-2 mg/#) Neomycin (2-10 mg/#) Amoxicillin, Ampicillin Antibiotics – “red butt” condition

19 PWD Rule-outs Carryover from farrowing Endemic TGE Coccidiosis
Rotavirus Endemic TGE Plus or minus carryover from farrowing Loss of lactogenic immunity at weaning plus environmental exposure  TGE

20 PWD Treatments Prevention Environment Sanitation Vaccination Feed
Oral F18 Feed Antibiotics Water

21 Ileitis (PPE, PIA)

22 Ileitis Caused by Lawsonia intracellularis
Porcine Proliferative Enteropathy (PPE) Three main forms PIA: porcine intestinal adenomatosis Ileal villi develop secondary and tertiary branches  thickening of the ileal mucosa Necrotic form: fibrinonecrotic membrane forms on ileal mucosa, may extend to colon Acute hemorrhagic form  sudden death Most common in gilts and sows

23 Ileitis Clinical signs Poor doing pig Mal-absorption
Protein losing enteropathy Diarrhea: orange tinge suggestive of partially digested blood, over blood with acute hemorrhagic form Many times soft or loose stools are over interpreted Increase number of cull or light weight pigs

24 Ileitis Lesions

25 Ileitis: Treatment Antibiotics that work: Tylan, CTC, Lincomycin, Denagard (Tiamulin), Mecadox Acute hemorrhagic form in older finishers/gilts/sows Inject with Tylan (10 mg/# SID) Inject with Lincomycin (5 mg/# SID) Follow-up with 100 gram/ton Tylan in the feed for 2-3 weeks Outbreak in growing pigs Inject severe cases with Tylan (dose as above) Water soluble Tylan Water soluble Denegard

26 Ileitis Control MLV product from BI
Timing and handling of vaccine is critical Oral administration via medicator Administer vaccine over 4 hour period No feed medication for 3 days prior to vaccination Starter pack - binds chlorine in water and colors water blue Monitoring stools is commonly done to “titrate” antibiotic control programs

27 Ileitis Treatment Vaccination Prevention though antibiotics
Feed Water Don’t forget market-ready pigs!

28 Don’t Forget PCV2 Diarrhea similar to Ileitis

29 Swine Dysentery

30 Swine Dysentery Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Characteristics
Mucohemorrhagic diarrhea Marked inflammation Large intestine only (cecum and/or colon) Grow finishing pigs (usually >50 lbs) Spirochetal colitis  B. pilosicoli

31 Swine Dysentary Prevention Treatment Negative replacement stock
Wean < 21 days Rodent control Treatment Medication Feed: Mecadox, Lincocin, Denegard Sanitation

32 Salmonellosis

33 Salmonellosis Primarily Salmonella cholerasuis
Salmonella typhimurium can cause diarrhea Wide variety of organisms can be food borne pathogens Often stress/environment induced Clinical signs Severe lethargy (very sick): +/- fever Purple discoloration of ears and belly = septicemia Diarrhea: +/- blood Pneumonia

34 Salmonellosis Lesions Diagnosis via culture Splenomegaly
Inflamed intestine Pneumonia – interstitial (wet lungs) Button ulcers on mucosal surface: primarily in colon Hemorrhagic lymph nodes Especially gastro-hepatic Other signs of septicemia Diagnosis via culture

35 Salmonellosis

36 Salmonellosis: Treatment
Injectables Naxcel (per label), Spectinomycin (ELU), Nuflor (ELU) Water medication Neomycin, Gentamycin, Spectinomycin (ELU) Respiratory - Nuflor Feed medication Mecadox (50 gram/ton) Neomycin and Terramycin (200 gram/ton of each) Many other options in foreign countries including quinolones

37 Salmonellosis Control
Vaccination S. cholerasuis +/- S. typhimurium MLV’s are effective Oral IN IM Killed vaccines have poor efficacy Environment is the primary focus: sanitation

38 Salmonellosis Treatment
Vaccination Antibiotics Prevention – Feed Treatment Water Injectable Feed Sanitation

39 Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome (HBS)

40 Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome
Definition of syndrome: consistent clinical signs and/or lesions but cause unknown Older (>150#) finishing pigs found dead +/- bloated abdomen Post-mortem lesions Uniform hemorrhagic appearance of entire gut or small intestines only Lumen content hemorrhagic and not clotting No palpable volvulus of the mesenteric root

41 Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome

42 Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome
Current thinking is that torsion or volvulus is primary problem: resolve in agonal state More common in deep bellied pigs? Control via feed grade medication? 100 grams per ton of tetracycline with or without 30 grams per ton of BMD (Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate) Added fiber to the diet Usually sporadic incidence (<1%) so hard to justify therapy costs

43 Gastric Ulcers

44 Gastric Ulcers Pigs will start to develop erosions of the non-glandular portion of the stomach within hours of feed removal Out of feed Sick due to something else: pneumonia Erosion can vary from superficial to complete penetrating Acute cases Pig found dead with large blood clot in stomach Anemia – very pale

45 Gastric Ulcers Subacute cases Chronic cases Lesion
Pig found dead or live but very sick with blood in small intestine but no inflammation of intestine Chronic cases Gaunt pig with black, tarry looking stool Pale appearance - Anemia Lesion Non-glandular portion of stomach where esophagus enters is eroded (pitted, indented) Normally this surface is slightly elevated from rest of stomach mucosa

46 Gastric Ulcers

47 Gastric Ulcers Peritonitis with perforation Pre-disposers
Local or generalized Pre-disposers Other diseases that caused reduced appetite: mainly respiratory Feed not available: plugged feeder, late deliveries Fine grind to corn (< microns) Pellet diets Common end stage cause of finisher mortality

48 Other Diseases

49 Additional Information:
Whipworms – outdoor production, pet pigs Ascarids – outdoor production, pet pigs Rectal stricture – congenital, 2ndary to salmonellosis Rectal prolapse – several techniques to repair but not a high yield procedure

50 Whipworms Trichuris suis Antihelminitcs – NOT Ivomec!
Worms are visible in large intestine and cecum Must look closely or use a magnifying lens Ileal-cecal junction if good are to look Clinical signs Diarrhea +/- blood Poor doing pigs Pre-disposers Dirt lot environment Low protein diets Antihelminitcs – NOT Ivomec!

51 Whipworms

52 Ascarids: Roundworms Ascaris suum
Little or no consequence in confined pigs Lack of exposure to feces Sows in gestation stalls and farrowing crates Pigs on wire and cement slat floors Continuous problem in pasture raised pigs 21 cycle Clinical signs and lesions Poor doing pigs Liver scars (milk spots) Petechia on lungs in acute cases (larval migration)

53 Ascarids: Roundworms

54 Ascarids: Roundworms Pigs will develop immunity Common scenario
Liver scars will resolve in 4-8 weeks Common scenario Replacement gilts raised in confinement have no immunity Moved to heavily contaminated, outside dirt lots to kept them cycling Larva start marching through the lung 7-10 days later  acute outbreak of respiratory disease

55 Internal Parasite Treatment
Mandatory? Many confinement herds only deworm sows 3-4 weeks pre-farrowing or at farrowing Many herds deworm young pigs that have had no chance for exposure to roundworms: wire flooring Avermectins at weaning (okay for mange) Banminth (pyrantel) continuously in the nursery diets With outdoor pigs, recognize risk for whipworm infestation Deworm pigs several times with fenbendazol (Safe-Guard) in the feed: 9-10 and weeks of age Double strength levamisole in water

56 Rectal Stricture Sequelae to: Clinical appearance Lesions
Salmonellosis Rectal prolapse Clinical appearance “Air belly”; severe distension of abdomen Cachexia Lesions Stricture in rectum Enlarged spiral colon (megacolon); +/- peritonitis

57 Rectal Stricture

58 Rectal Prolapse Primarily prolapse of mucosa Pre-disposers
Variable degrees Polyp on one side Complete circle Pre-disposers Genetics Increased abdominal pressure Coughing Chilling  piling

59 Rectal Prolapse

60 Rectal Prolapse Repair
Purse string: tissue still fresh, sows Replace prolapse, suture around the anus, leave an approximately ¾ inch (one finger width) opening to enable defecation Rectal ring: tissue already necrotic Various sizes, choose largest that will fit Hold ring with clamp and position so that the “slot” in the ring is at the anus Use elastrator band or umbilical tape to secure the ring Trim excess tissue so that pen mates don’t bother

61 Rectal Prolapse Repair

62 Acknowledgements I would like to recognize others for their significant contributions to this presentation: Dr. Brad Thacker Dr. Locke Karriker Dr. Pat Halbur Dr. Butch Baker

63 Questions ?

Download ppt "VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Enteric Disease Control"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google