Presentation on theme: "The Basics Livestock managers work hard to balance the nutritional needs of livestock and the cost of feed. Improper feeding can keep an animal from gaining."— Presentation transcript:
The Basics Livestock managers work hard to balance the nutritional needs of livestock and the cost of feed. Improper feeding can keep an animal from gaining or maintaining a proper weight, weaken an animal’s immunity to diseases and parasites, or cause problems because of deficiencies of important nutrients
Digestive Process Digestion – Process by which food is broken down into a form that an organism can use for energy Carnivores – Eat meat Herbivores – Eat primarily plant matter Omnivores – Eat both plant and animal matter Monogastric – Have a stomach with only one compartment Ruminant – Have a stomach with four compartments Cecum – Pouch connected to the junction of the small and large intestines
Digestive Process Digestive Process Monogastric/Nonruminant 1.The food is taken into the mouth, where it is chewed and mixed with saliva 2.Food moves down the esophagus to the stomach, where it is churned and mixed with digestive juices 3.Food moves into the small intestine, where most of the digestible portion is absorbed 4.Food moves into the cecum Functional cecum: some additional digestion and absorption takes place Nonfunctional cecum: food moves on through the digestive system 5. Undigested portion of the food moves into the large intestine, where the water is absorbed and the rest is collected to form feces 6.Feces is stored in the rectum until it is expelled through the anus
Digestive Process Digestive Process Ruminants 1.Food is taken into the mouth and chewed long enough to make swallowing possible 2.Food moves down the esophagus to the rumen, where it is acted on by millions of microorganisms 3.Portion of the food in the form of a bolus is forced from the rumen back into the mouth, where it is rechewed and reswallowed 4.Food returns to the rumen/reticulum for further storage and action by microorganisms 5.Food moves to the omasum, where water is squeezed from the food 6.Food enters the abomasum, where it is mixed with digestive juices 7.Food moves to the small intestine, where the digestible portion is absorbed 8.Undigested portion of the food moves to the large intestine, where it is formed into feces 9.Feces is stored in the rectum until it is expelled through the anus.
Categories and Compositions of Feed Feed – Food used for farm animals Feedstuff – Any of the constituent nutrients of an animal ration Roughages – Feeds high in cellulose or fiber and relatively low in digestible nutrients Concentrates – Low in fiber and relatively high in digestible nutrients Supplements – “Extras” that supply specific nutrients Additives – Components added to feeds that are of no nutritive value
Categories and Compositions of Feed Maintenance Ration – Maintains an animal’s normal body function Growing ration – Provides enough nutrients to support the growth and development of animals Fattening ration – Supplies the nutrients to support not only maintenance and growth, but also the storage of energy in the form of fat Production ration – Supplies nutrients to assist in the production of eggs, milk, or well as well as reproduction Working ration – Supplies addition nutrients to conduct work Flushing ration – Given to females prior to breeding to increase body weight Creep feed – Additional feed for young animals that supplements nutrients provided by mother’s milk Medicated feed – Includes important medicines or antibiotics to prevent and treat diseases and parasites
Common Feed Additives Antibiotics Chemicals Hormones Mineral Supplements Feed Additive Component added to feed for a specific purpose
Is All Feed Created Equal? Considerations 1.Type of livestock being fed and the purpose of raising that livestock 2.Nutritional value and palatability (how acceptable the feed is to the animal) 3.Quantity of feed to buy 4.How much nutrient value a feedstuff contains in comparison to the price per unit 5.Facilities used to store the feed
Feed Storage and Handling Processes Moisture – Safe moisture level varies, depending on the type of feed being stored Insects – Grains should be treated with a protectant at the time of harvest, and grain storage bins should be cleaned thoroughly prior to use Rodents – Contamination of the feed by urine and feces
The Purpose of Food – Energy The Purpose of Food – Energy Net-Energy System Gross Energy (GE) – Energy found in the feed Digestible Energy (DE) – After fecal energy is lost Metabolizable Energy (ME) – Following urinary and gas energy loss Net Energy (NE) – After heat energy is lost
The Purpose of Food – Energy The Purpose of Food – Energy Total Digestible Nutrients Percentage of the feed that yields digestible energy TDN = digestible protein + digestible fiber + digestible nitrogen-free extract + (digestible fat 2.25)
A Balanced Diet A Balanced Diet Balancing Rations 1.What is the availability and cost of different feed ingredients? 2.What is the weight and productivity of the animal? 3.What nutritional needs do the animals have? 4.What is the composition of the feeds under consideration? 5.Are the feedstuffs palatable and digestible? 6.What is the moisture content? 7.What is the quality of the products being placed in the feed?
Example: Sandy wants to make 1 ton (2000 lbs) of ration with 16% protein using corn with a 6.6% protein and soybean meal with 41% protein. How much of each will she have to mix together? Pearson Square
Pasture Requirements and Grazing Systems Protein – A minimum level of protein is needed during development to insure proper growth Energy – Required energy levels for maintenance and gain may not be available from given forage Minerals – Calcium and phosphorous levels decrease with maturity
Pasture Requirements and Grazing Systems Continuous grazing – Uninterrupted grazing of a pasture by livestock throughout the grazing season Rotation grazing – Two or more pastures are grazed in a planned sequence Intensive grazing – Large number of livestock graze on a high-quality pasture Strip grazing – Animals are moved from one strip pasture to another on a daily basis Creep grazing – High-quality pasture is accessible only to your animals