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Diseases and Parasites of Swine Goal of producers should be to prevent rather than treat diseases.

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Presentation on theme: "Diseases and Parasites of Swine Goal of producers should be to prevent rather than treat diseases."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diseases and Parasites of Swine Goal of producers should be to prevent rather than treat diseases.

2 Causes of Swine Diseases Bacterial Bacterial Viral Viral Nutritional Nutritional Genetic Genetic Unknown Unknown

3 Common bacterial diseases Atrophic Rhinitis (AR) Atrophic Rhinitis (AR) Caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica Caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica Destroys the nasal turbinates Destroys the nasal turbinates Mortality is low Mortality is low Significantly affects growth rate and feed efficiency Significantly affects growth rate and feed efficiency

4 AR continued Symptoms in baby pigs include sneezing and discharges of the eyes and nose Symptoms in baby pigs include sneezing and discharges of the eyes and nose A distorted (twisted) snout is a later symptom A distorted (twisted) snout is a later symptom

5 AR Prevention and Treatment Vaccines are available to prevent AR. Vaccines are available to prevent AR. Sows are vaccinated before farrowing Sows are vaccinated before farrowing Use of SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) breeding stock is an approach to preventing AR Use of SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) breeding stock is an approach to preventing AR Sulfa drugs, such as CSP-250 are the most effective treatment Sulfa drugs, such as CSP-250 are the most effective treatment

6 E. Coli scours Also referred to as baby pig scours or white scours or bacterial enteritis Also referred to as baby pig scours or white scours or bacterial enteritis E. coli is a highly contagious disease caused by several strains of E. coli bacteria. E. coli is a highly contagious disease caused by several strains of E. coli bacteria. Usually affects the newborn pig within the first week of life. Usually affects the newborn pig within the first week of life. Mortality may be high Mortality may be high

7 E. Coli continued Preventive steps include: sanitation, proper sow nutrition and vaccination Preventive steps include: sanitation, proper sow nutrition and vaccination Commercial vaccines as well as autogenous vaccines are effective Commercial vaccines as well as autogenous vaccines are effective Antibiotic treatment should be administered orally to be effective Antibiotic treatment should be administered orally to be effective

8 Edema Also known as gut edema or E. coli enterotoxemia Also known as gut edema or E. coli enterotoxemia Generally occurs soon after weaning Generally occurs soon after weaning Sudden death is usually the first noticeable symptom. Sudden death is usually the first noticeable symptom. Other symptoms include swollen eye lids and convulsions Other symptoms include swollen eye lids and convulsions

9 Edema continued No effective vaccine available No effective vaccine available Treatment generally includes: withholding feed for 24 hours; adding whole oats to the diet; adding or changing antibiotic Treatment generally includes: withholding feed for 24 hours; adding whole oats to the diet; adding or changing antibiotic

10 Swine Dysentery Also referred to as bloody scours or vibrionic dysentery Also referred to as bloody scours or vibrionic dysentery Caused by Treponema hyodysenteria Caused by Treponema hyodysenteria Generally affects pigs 8-14 weeks of age Generally affects pigs 8-14 weeks of age Highly contagious Highly contagious Mortality is moderate (30%) Mortality is moderate (30%) Reduces overall performance Reduces overall performance

11 Bloody scours continued There is no effective vaccine available There is no effective vaccine available Treatment includes the use of antibiotics Treatment includes the use of antibiotics Carbadox (Mecadox) and Lincomycin are two drugs of choice Carbadox (Mecadox) and Lincomycin are two drugs of choice

12 Erysipelas Caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Occurs in acute, mild and chronic forms. Occurs in acute, mild and chronic forms. Chronic erysipelas causes lameness in G-F swine due to arthritis. Chronic erysipelas causes lameness in G-F swine due to arthritis. Effective vaccines are available. Effective vaccines are available. Pigs are usually vaccinated at 8-10 weeks of age. Pigs are usually vaccinated at 8-10 weeks of age.

13 Brucellosis Caused by Brucella suis. Caused by Brucella suis. Usually spread by ingesting the organism Usually spread by ingesting the organism Causes abortion and sterility or reduced fertility in boars Causes abortion and sterility or reduced fertility in boars No vaccine available No vaccine available No effective treatment No effective treatment Prevent by using disease free breeding stock Prevent by using disease free breeding stock

14 Leptospirosis Caused by five different strains: Caused by five different strains: L. pomona L. pomona L. grippotyphosa L. grippotyphosa L. canicola L. canicola L. icterohemorragiae L. icterohemorragiae L. harjo L. harjo L. bratislava L. bratislava

15 Leptospirosis continued Results in abortion, stillborns and weak pigs at birth Results in abortion, stillborns and weak pigs at birth Prevention includes vaccinating the breeding herd every 6 months Prevention includes vaccinating the breeding herd every 6 months

16 Mycoplasma A bacteria that causes both arthritis and pneumonia in growing-finishing pigs A bacteria that causes both arthritis and pneumonia in growing-finishing pigs Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae cause arthritis Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae cause arthritis Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes pneumonia Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes pneumonia Most swine herds are infected with mycoplasma Most swine herds are infected with mycoplasma

17 Mycoplasma continued Vaccines are available; however effectiveness is variable Vaccines are available; however effectiveness is variable Lincomycin seems to be an effective treatment Lincomycin seems to be an effective treatment SPF stock are mycoplasma free SPF stock are mycoplasma free

18 Porcine Pleuropneumonia Formerly called Haemophilus pleuropneumonia (HPP) Formerly called Haemophilus pleuropneumonia (HPP) Caused by the bacteria Actinobacillus plesropneumoniae. Caused by the bacteria Actinobacillus plesropneumoniae. Often fatal-usually affets finishing hogs. Often fatal-usually affets finishing hogs. Treat with an antibiotic/Prevent: AIAO Treat with an antibiotic/Prevent: AIAO

19 Common viral diseases Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) High mortality in new born pigs High mortality in new born pigs Affect all ages of swine Affect all ages of swine Symptoms include: vomiting, diarrhea and death Symptoms include: vomiting, diarrhea and death Often referred to as “Winter-time Disease” Often referred to as “Winter-time Disease”

20 TGE continued Vaccines are available Vaccines are available Exposure of gestating swine to the disease prior to farrowing will result in immunity Exposure of gestating swine to the disease prior to farrowing will result in immunity No effective treatment No effective treatment TGE recovered sows should be kept for breeding TGE recovered sows should be kept for breeding

21 Pseudorabies (PRV) Caused by a Herpes virus Caused by a Herpes virus Affects the CNS Affects the CNS High mortality in baby pigs High mortality in baby pigs Affects all ages Affects all ages Causes abortion, stillborns, etc. Causes abortion, stillborns, etc. No effective treatment No effective treatment

22 PRV continued PRV is also referred to as Aujeszky’s disease (mad itch) PRV is also referred to as Aujeszky’s disease (mad itch) Vaccines are available; however, Missouri producers cannot use the vaccine unless approved by the State Veterinarian Vaccines are available; however, Missouri producers cannot use the vaccine unless approved by the State Veterinarian Only PRV infected herds quarantined by the State Veterinarian are vaccinated in MO. Only PRV infected herds quarantined by the State Veterinarian are vaccinated in MO.

23 Parvovirus Causes reproductive problems including abortions, stillborns, small litters, infertility, etcetera Causes reproductive problems including abortions, stillborns, small litters, infertility, etcetera Sows can be vaccinated Sows can be vaccinated No effective treatment No effective treatment Formerly referred to as SMEDI (a complex of disease symptoms; stillborn, mummified, embryonic death and infertility) Formerly referred to as SMEDI (a complex of disease symptoms; stillborn, mummified, embryonic death and infertility)

24 Swine Influenza (Flu) A respiratory disease caused by a combination of a virus and a bacteria A respiratory disease caused by a combination of a virus and a bacteria Symptoms include fever, coughing and off feed for several days Symptoms include fever, coughing and off feed for several days Vaccine available. ?? Effectiveness. Vaccine available. ?? Effectiveness. Producers often provide pigs with an antibiotic to prevent secondary infections Producers often provide pigs with an antibiotic to prevent secondary infections

25 Genetic Related Disease Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS) Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS) Symptoms include nervousness, tail twitching and muscle tremors Symptoms include nervousness, tail twitching and muscle tremors Death may occur as a result of handling due to poor blood circulation and respiratory failure Death may occur as a result of handling due to poor blood circulation and respiratory failure

26 PSS continued PSS animals are generally heavy muscled PSS animals are generally heavy muscled PSS is an inherited condition caused by recessive genes PSS is an inherited condition caused by recessive genes Prevention or elimination of the disease is through rigid selection against the recessive genes Prevention or elimination of the disease is through rigid selection against the recessive genes Halothane test Halothane test

27 Nutrition Related Disease Anemia Anemia Confinement raised pigs need a supplemental source of iron to prevent anemia Confinement raised pigs need a supplemental source of iron to prevent anemia

28 Unknown Causes of Swine Diseases Mastitis, Metritis and Agalactia (MMA) Mastitis, Metritis and Agalactia (MMA) Results in death of newborn pigs due to starvation Results in death of newborn pigs due to starvation Disease may be present at parturition or may appear several days after birth Disease may be present at parturition or may appear several days after birth Bacteria, hormone imbalance and stress are all thought to contribute to MMA Bacteria, hormone imbalance and stress are all thought to contribute to MMA

29 MMA continued Treatment may include the use of the hormone oxytocin “PoP” to stimulate milk letdown Treatment may include the use of the hormone oxytocin “PoP” to stimulate milk letdown Sows may also be given an antibiotic Sows may also be given an antibiotic

30 Internal Parasites The large roundworm (ascarid) is the most common internal parasite of swine The large roundworm (ascarid) is the most common internal parasite of swine Other roundworms include: stomach worms, intestinal treadworms, kidney worms, lungworms and nodular worms Other roundworms include: stomach worms, intestinal treadworms, kidney worms, lungworms and nodular worms Symptoms of worm infestation include: poor growth, thin rough hair coat, diarrhea and coughing Symptoms of worm infestation include: poor growth, thin rough hair coat, diarrhea and coughing

31 Internal parasites continued Ascarid migration increases susceptibility to pneumonia Ascarid migration increases susceptibility to pneumonia Ascarid migration results in white spots in the liver Ascarid migration results in white spots in the liver Worms can be controlled by the use of anthelmintics and good sanitation Worms can be controlled by the use of anthelmintics and good sanitation

32 Common vs Technical Terms for Internal Parasites Large roundworms = Ascarid Large roundworms = Ascarid Stomach worms = Hydrostrongylus Stomach worms = Hydrostrongylus Intestinal treadworms = Strongyloides Intestinal treadworms = Strongyloides Kidney worms = Stephanurus Kidney worms = Stephanurus Lungworms = Metastrongylus Lungworms = Metastrongylus Nodular worms = Oesophagostomum Nodular worms = Oesophagostomum Whipworms = Trichurus Whipworms = Trichurus

33 Internal parasites continued Some common dewormers include: Some common dewormers include: Atgard = Dichlorvos (feed) Atgard = Dichlorvos (feed) Banminth = Pyrantel Tartrate (feed) Banminth = Pyrantel Tartrate (feed) Tramisol = Levamisole (feed or water) Tramisol = Levamisole (feed or water) Ivermectin = Ivomec (injectable Ivermectin = Ivomec (injectable

34 External Parasites Lice (hog louse) Lice (hog louse) Are blood suckers. Approximately ¼” long Are blood suckers. Approximately ¼” long Result in economic loss due to reduced performance Result in economic loss due to reduced performance Control by use of insecticides Control by use of insecticides Insecticides available as a spray, pour-on, dust, granule or injectible Insecticides available as a spray, pour-on, dust, granule or injectible

35 Mange Caused by microscopic mites that burrow beneath the skin. Caused by microscopic mites that burrow beneath the skin. Causes severe itching Causes severe itching Will reduce swine performance Will reduce swine performance Control by the use of insecticides. Control by the use of insecticides. Ivermectin is the insecticide of choice Ivermectin is the insecticide of choice


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