2The Digestive SystemMajority of worms are found in the small intestines, where they mature into adult wormsIn children, worms absorb up to 30% of nutrients taken in from their food.
3Common Intestinal Parasites are Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm)Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)Necator americanus (hookworm).Tapewormpinworm
4Main Causes ingestion of undercooked foods drinking infected water and skin absorptionInfected water is a major concern, especially in countries such as Haiti, where there isn’t a great clean water systemAlso, ingestion of fruits and vegetables washed by parasite-infected water is a major issue as well; water is taken from wells, streams, and salt water sources when the previous two are low in levelsSkin absorption through larvae infected soil, or in some cases, soil with feces.When a latrine is not available, they will use a bush or plant. The rain will come and spread it over land that people walk.Most common in school aged children who are in constant contact with playground sandboxes or dirtKnowing children, sometimes they’ll ingest it whether intentional or not and that will travel directly to their GI tract
5General Symptoms Abdominal pain Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Gas or bloatingDramatic weight lossFeeling tiredPassing worms in their stoolImmune supressionMany parasites produce a prostaglandin that leads to a sodium and chloride loss in the body. This in turn can causes diarrhea.Parasites that live in the upper small intestines can cause intestinal symptoms such as inflammation that leads to gas and bloatingNot getting the nutrients you need will make you feel tired and fatigued. Immune supression -Parasites also stimulate the production of immunoglobulin A, which is a defender against foreign substances. Over time, this over stimulation can exhaust the body’s supply of immunoglobulin A, leaving the body susceptible to attacks
6Roundworm The larva mature in the lungs. The adult worms produce eggs which are shed in the feces.Most infections produce no symptoms.They penetrate the intestinal wall and travel through the blood and lymphatic system to the lungs.They then ascend the bronchial tree and are swallowed. Once in the small intestine, they mature into adult wormsHeavy infection can lead to nutritional deficiency or intestinal obstruction.
8WhipwormShaped like a whip, the thin end is embedded in the mucosa while the thin end extends into the bowel lumen.Colitis, dysentery and rectal prolapsed may occur in those with heavy infection.Eggs are shed into the stool.Colitis- inflammation of the colonDysentry- inflammation of intestines that leads to the passing of mucus and blood in one’s stool; damages the body’s immune cells and leads to muscle spasms of the intestinal muscles
9Hookworm human nematode infection The worms are about 1/2 inch long. Produces anemiatreatment consists of iron replacementAdults, especially agricultural workers, are at equal or higher risk of exposure than childrenFlesh eating staph infectionFor hookworm, people become infected when the larvae burrow through the skin of bare feetThe larvae get into the skin. The larvae move to the lungs via the bloodstream and enter the airways.Travel up the windpipe, the larva are swallowed. After the larvae are swallowed, they infect the small intestine. They develop into adult worms and live there for 1 or more years. Adult worms and larvae are released in the feces.Hookworm causes bleeding in the intestines and loss of blood, leading to iron defeciency
10TapewormCaused by eating raw or undercooked meat of animals infected with tapewormsGrow in the intestinesSegmentedEggs also be spread by infected individuals with poor hygieneNo major symptoms, but abdominal pain may occur.Can be diagnosed by passing segments through stoolCan grow to be up to 12 feet long and can live for years.Tapeworms have many segments and each segment can produce eggs which pass through stool.
12Pinworm Very small The most common intestinal worm infection in the US Most common in school-age childrenSpread by direct contactThe cycleSymptoms:intense itchingdifficulty sleepingTreatment:antivirus medicationintense cleaning to kill eggsThey can also be spread by touching bedding, food, or other items contaminated with the eggs.Typically, children are infected by unknowingly touching pinworm eggs and putting their fingers in their mouths. The eggs are swallowed, and eventually hatch in the small intestine. The worms mature in the colon.Female worms then move to the child's anal area, especially at night, and deposit more eggs. This may cause intense itching. The area may even become infected. When the child scratches the itching anal area, the eggs can get under the child's fingernails.These eggs can be transferred to other children, family members, and items in the house.You can see them normally during the night and remove them.Treatement
14Kwashiorkor Most common in areas where there is limited food supply. A form of malnutrition that occurs when there is not enough protein in the dietMost common in areas where there is limited food supply.Symptoms:Changes in skin pigmentFatigue*Large belly that sticks outSwelling (edema)In kwashiorkor the body cannot synthesize the proteins it needs. Body proteins, including blood proteins, are broken down to supply the body with energy. This loss of proteins from the blood increases its water potential. This means that less water is removed from the body tissues into the blood by osmosis, causing the body tissues to swell. The bloated stomach of a starving child with kwashiorkor is caused by this process, as well as a swollen liver.
15Effects on health malnutrition impaired growth. mental retardation deathBecause the number of worms build up over time, many of the health problems caused by these worms are chronic and can be long lastingThe worms can cause malnutrition, either because they cause loss of appetite so the person eats less, or by preventing food from being absorbed properly once it has been eaten.Children with chronic worm infections and large numbers of worms may be stunted and underweight
16Treatments fiber-rich ingredients taking antibiotics Daily multivitaminsAlbendazole ( what we prescribe at clinics)Fiber rich ingredients are essential to flush out parasites embedded in the intestinal wallAntibiotics drugs destroy both friendly and unfriendly bacteria indiscriminately. Be sure to find a probiotic with at least 10 billion live organisms per dose.This is why multivitamin donations are so essential; medical-grade daily multivitaminis critical in restoring health to the digestive tract. Especially important is the addition of essential fatty acids that help reduce inflammation in the intestines.Albendazole I what we tend to issue out; it kills adult worms effectivelyAlbendazole is very safe and most people do not experience any side effects, but a small minority report mild and short-lived symptoms. These may include headache, fever, stomachache, diarrhoea and vomiting. Side effects are most likely to occur in people with heavy infections of worms. If side effects are serious or persist, children should be taken to a clinic.
17Prevention Techniques Wash all fruits and vegetables in clean water before eatingWear shoes or slippersWater from septic tanks or other potentially contaminated sources should not be used for watering vegetables.Using a latrine, rather than in the bush or around the home or school.Young children should be taught to use chamber pots, which can then be emptied into a latrine.Children should be taught to wash their hands after using the latrine, after playing in dirty soil, after farming or gardening and before preparing or eating food.Worm infections prevent children from being able to go to school, so educating them early can result in a substantial amount of prevention
19Creole Greetings: Bonjou..………………..…………….Good Morning Bonswa..……………….…Good Afternoon/EveningBὸn nuit………….………...……………Good NightBὸn jouné………….…… Have a Good DayO revwa……………………….………….Good ByeKouman ou yé……….…….…………How Are You?Mwen Byen……………...……… I’m GoodMèsi……..………………………………Thank YouSouplè………………..………………….…..PleaseKouman ou rele?………………What is your Name?