2 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 24.1 Describe the structure of bone tissue.24.2 Explain the functions of bones.24.3 Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification.24.4 Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.
3 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 24.5 Locate the bones of the skull.Locate the bones of the spinal column.Locate the bones of the rib cage.Locate the bones of the shoulders, arms, and hands.
4 Learning Outcomes (cont.) Locate the bones of the hips, legs, and feet.24.10 Describe the three major types of joints and give examples of each.24.11 Describe the common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.
5 Introduction Bones provide structure and support 206 bones plus joints and connective tissueDivisionsAxial ~ 80 bonesSkullVertebral columnRib cageAppendicular ~ 126 bonesArms and legsPectoral girdlePelvic girdleLearning Outcome: Describe the structure of bone tissue.Hyoid bone – anchors the tongue; included in the axial skeleton.Pectoral girdle – attaches the arms to the axial skeleton.Pelvic girdle – attaches the legs to the axial skeleton.
6 Bone Structure Bones contain various kinds of tissues Osseous tissueBlood vesselsNervesOsseous tissue can appear compact or spongySpongy (Cancellous) BoneCompact BoneLearning Outcome: Describe the structure of bone tissue.Osseous tissueSpongy or cancellous bone has more spaces within it than compact bone does.Spongy bone looks a lot like a natural sea sponge with the spaces filled with red bone marrow.Compact bone looks solid like granite or marble.
7 Bone Structure (cont.) Structures within compact bone Osteons Bone matrixLamellaLacunaeCanaliculiAll bones are made up of both compact and spongy boneLearning Outcome: Describe the structure of bone tissue.Osteons (Haversian system) – elongated cylinders that run up and down the long axis of the bone. Each osteon has a central canal that contains blood vessels and nerves.Bone matrix – inorganic salts, collagen fibers, and proteins that exists between osteocytes(bone cells). The primary salt of the matrix is calcium phosphate, which makes bone matrix very hard.Lamella – layers of bone surrounding the canals of osteons.Lacunae – holes in the bone matrix that hold osteocytes.Canaliculi – tiny canals that connect lacunae to each other and allow osteocytes to spread nutrients to each other.
8 Bone Structure (cont.) Long bones Femur and humerus Parts Diaphysis EpiphysisArticular cartilageMedullary cavityPeriosteumEndosteumLearning Outcome: Describe the structure of bone tissue.Bones are classified according to their shape.Long bonesDiaphysis – shaft of a long bone.Epiphysis – expanded end; consists of thin layer of compact bone surrounding cancellous bone.Articular cartilage – covers epiphyses of long bones.Medullary cavity – canal that runs through center of diaphysis; contains yellow bone marrow in adults.Periosteum – membrane surrounding the diaphysis.Endosteum – membrane lining the medullary cavity and the holes of cancellous bone.
9 Bone Structure (cont.) Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones Sesamoid bonesLearning Outcome: Describe the structure of bone tissue.Short bones – small bones located in the wrists and ankles. Examples – Carpals and TarsalsFlat bones – primarily located in the skull and rib cage. Examples include the ribs and frontal bone.Irregular bones include the vertebrae and the pelvic girdle bones.Sesamoid bones – small, rounded bones usually found next to joints or embedded in a tendon. An example is the patella.
10 Gender Differences in Skeletal Structure Male SkullLarger and heavierForehead shorterFace less roundJaw largerMale pelvisBones are heavier and thickerCavity is narrowerLearning Outcome: Describe the structure of bone tissue.Refer to Table 24-1 Differences Between the Male and Female Skeletons.
11 Apply Your Knowledge C B D Very Good! A E Matching: Holes in the matrix that contain osteocytes Made of inorganic salts, collagen fibers, and proteins; between osteocytes Layers of bone surrounding the canals of the osteons Elongated cylinders that run the length of the bone Canals that connect lacunae to each otherOsteonsBone matrixLamellaLacunaeCaniculiCANSWER:BDVery Good!Learning Outcome: Describe the structure of bone tissue.AE
12 Functions of Bones Give shape to body parts Support and protect soft structuresFunction in body movementRed bone marrow – hematopoiesisStore calciumLearning Outcome: Explain the functions of bones.
13 Correct! Apply Your Knowledge Why is it important for the bones to store calcium?ANSWER: Every cell in the body needs calcium, so the body must have a large supply readily available.Correct!Learning Outcome: Explain the functions of bones.
14 Bone Growth Ossification Intramembranous ossification Bones begin as tough, fibrous membraneOsteoblasts turn the membrane to boneLearning Outcome: Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification.Ossification – the process of bone growthIntramembranous ossificationBones begin as tough, fibrous membranes.Bone-forming cells called osteoblasts turn the membrane to bone.Except for the lower jaw bone, the bones of the skull are formed by intramembranous ossification.
15 Bone Growth (cont.) Endochondral ossification Bones begin as cartilage modelsDiaphysis ~ primary ossification centerDiaphysisLearning Outcome: Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification.Endochondral ossificationOsteoblasts form a bone collar around the diaphysis of the cartilage model.Bone is formed in the diaphysis of the bone.
16 Bone Growth (cont.) Endochondral ossification Epiphysis ~ secondary ossification centerEpiphyseal disc ~ cartilage between epiphysis and diaphysisDiaphysisLearning Outcome: Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification.Endochondral ossificationEpiphyses turn to bone.Medullary cavity and spaces in cancellous bone are formed. The cells that form holes in bone are called osteoclastsBone will continue to grow in length as long as there is some cartilage between an epiphysis and the diaphysisThis plate of cartilage is called an epiphyseal disk or growth plate.Once the cartilage is gone, bone growth stops
17 Building Better Bones Bone – healthy diet Bone-healthy exercises Vitamin DCalciumBone-healthy exercisesWeight-bearingStrength-trainingLearning Outcome: Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification.Many factors influence bone health. Patients improve or maintain their bone health learning about behaviors that will support bone health.Bone-Healthy DietCalcium and vitamin D are particularly important for healthy bones.Without vitamin D, the bloodstream cannot absorb calcium.Without calcium, bone tissue will slowly wear away.Bone-building nutrients are found in dairy products, broccoli, kale, spinach, salmon, sardines, egg yolks, whole grains, and fruits, especially bananas and oranges.Bone-Healthy ExercisesWeight-bearing and strength-training exercises.When your muscles contract, they pull on your bones. This tension stimulates bones to thicken and strengthen.Lifting weights is an effective way to increase the tension on bones.
18 Building Better Bones (cont.) Bone-healthy lifestyle – avoid smoking and alcoholBone testsBone density testsBone scanLearning Outcome: Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification.Bone-Healthy LifestyleAvoid smoking and alcohol.Smoking rids the body of calcium, which is necessary for bone growth.Alcohol prevents calcium absorption in the digestive tract.Bone TestsBone density tests are painless procedures used to determine the density of a person’s bones.Bone scans help diagnose the causes of bone pain, arthritis, bone infections, and bone cancers.
19 Good Job! Apply Your Knowledge What are the two types of bone growth? ANSWER: Intramembranous ossification, in which bones begin as tough membrane and are turned to bone by osteoblasts, and endochondral ossification, in which primary ossification occurs in the diaphysis of the bone and secondary ossification occurs in the epiphysis.Learning Outcome: Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification.Good Job!
20 Bony Structures Bones are designed with Projections and processes Depressions and hollows at articulationsOpenings for blood vessels and nervesLearning Outcome: Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.Bones have projections and processes for muscle and ligament attachment.Joints or articulations have depressions and hollows for bones to come together
21 Bony Structures (cont.) TermDefinitionCondyleA rounded process that usually articulates with another boneCrestA narrow, ridge-like projectionEpicondyleA projection situated above a condyleForamenAn opening through a bone that is usually a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligamentsFossaA relatively deep pit or depressionLearning Outcome: Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.Table 24-2 Terms Used to Describe Skeletal Structures.
22 Bony Structures (cont.) TermDefinitionHeadAn enlargement on the end of a boneProcessA prominent projection on a boneSutureAn interlocking line of union between bonesTrochanterA relatively large processTubercleA small, knoblike processTuberosityA knoblike process, usually larger than a tubercleLearning Outcome: Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.
23 Apply Your Knowledge GREAT! ANSWER: Match the following: ___ Epicondyle A. A relatively deep pit or depression___ Fontanels B. An interlocking line of union between bones___ Fossa C. “Soft spots” felt on an infant’s skull___ Process D. A knoblike process, usually larger than a tubercle___ Suture E. A projection situated above a condyle___ Tuberosity F. A prominent projection on a boneECAFLearning Outcome: Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.BD
24 The Skull Two bone types – cranial and facial Infant skulls Bones not completely formedFontanels – tough membranesSuturesLearning Outcomes: Locate the bones of the skull.Cranial bones form the top, sides, and back of the skull.Facial bones form the face.Skull bones of an infantFontanels, which are tough membranes that connect the incompletely developed bones.They allow the infant’s skull to be somewhat moldable to assist with delivery through the birth canal.As the fontanels close, the sutures of the skull are formed.
25 The Skull (cont.) Cranial bones Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal External auditory meatusSphenoid and ethmoid bonesEar ossiclesMalleusIncusStapesLearning Outcomes: Locate the bones of the skull.Frontal bone – the anterior portion of the cranium, the forehead bone.Parietal bones – most of the top and sides of the skull.Occipital bone – the back of the skullForamen magnum – allows the spinal cord to connect to the brain.Occipital condyles sit on top of the first vertebra.Two temporal bones form the lower sides of the skull.External auditory meatus – commonly called the ear canalRuns through each temporal bone.The mastoid process – where major neck muscles attach to your skull.Sphenoid boneForms part of the floor of the craniumShaped like a butterfly.Sella turcica – deep depression containing the pituitary gland.Ethmoid bones – between the sphenoid bone and the nasal bones; form part of the floor of the cranium.Ear ossicles –The body’s smallest bones – the malleus, incus, and stapesLocated in the middle ear cavities of the temporal bones.Click to see Skull
26 The Skull (cont.) Facial bones Mandible ~ lower jaw Maxillae ~ upper jawZygomaticCheekbonesFused nasal bones form bridge of nosePalatine ~ hard palateVomer ~ divides nasal cavityLearning Outcomes: Locate the bones of the skull.MandibleLower jaw bone; the only moveable bone in the skull.It attaches to the temporal bone in front of the external auditory meatus at the temporal mandibular joint (TMJ).The mandible anchors the lower teeth and forms the chin.MaxillaeForm the upper jaw bone.Anchors the upper teeth.Zygomatic bonesCheekbonesSeveral thin nasal bones fuse together to form the bridge of the nose.Palatine bones – hard palate; the roof of the mouth.Vomer – thin bone that divides the nasal cavity.Click to see Skull
27 The Skull (cont.) Back Sphenoid bone Vomer bone Frontal bone Parietal boneEthmoid boneNasal boneSphenoid boneTemporal boneOccipital boneZygomatic boneLearning Outcomes: Locate the bones of the skull.External auditory meatusMaxillaeMandibleBack
28 Very Good! Apply Your Knowledge ANSWER: Match the bones of the skull: ___ Occipital A. Form the upper jawbone___ Sphenoid B. A thin bone that divides the nasal cavity___ Mandible C. Part of the floor of the skull___ Maxillae D. Form the prominence of the cheeks___ Zygomatic E. Back of skull___ Vomer F. Lower jawboneECFALearning Outcomes: Locate the bones of the skull.DVery Good!B
29 The Spinal Column 7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebraeSacrumCoccyxLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the spinal column.
30 The Spinal Column (cont.) Cervical vertebraeSmallest and lightestLocated in the neckAtlasAxisThoracic vertebraePosterior attachment for ribsLumbar vertebraeSmall of the backBear most weightLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the spinal column.Cervical vertebraeLocated in the neckSmallest and lightest vertebraeThe first cervical vertebra – atlasThe second – axisWhen turning your head from side to side, the atlas pivots around the axis.Thoracic vertebraePosterior attachment for the 12 pairs of ribs.They have long, sharp, spinous processes.Lumbar vertebraeVery sturdy structures.Form the small of the back.Bear the most weight of all the vertebrae.
31 The Spinal Column (cont.) SacrumA triangular-shaped boneFive fused vertebraeCoccyxA small, triangular-shaped bone3 to 5 fused vertebraeLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the spinal column.The coccyxThe tailboneSmall, triangular-shaped bone made up of three-to-five fused vertebraeConsidered unnecessary
32 Right! Apply Your Knowledge ANSWER:Cervical – 7Identify the sections of the spinal column and give the number of vertebrae for each.Thoracic – 12Learning Outcome: Locate the bones of the spinal column.Lumbar – 5Right!Sacrum – 5 fusedCoccyx – 3 to 5 fused
33 The Rib Cage Sternum Breastplate Joins with the clavicles and most ribsXiphoid processLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the rib cage.The rib cage is made of 12 pairs of ribs and the sternum or the breastplate.The sternum forms the front, middle portion of the rib cage.The xiphoid process is the cartilaginous tip of the sternum.The sternum joins with the clavicles and most ribs.To ribcage
34 The Rib Cage (cont.) Ribs All are attached posteriorly to thoracic vertebraeTrue – 1st 7 pairsFalse – pairs 8, 9, and 10Floating – pairsLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the rib cage.All 12 pairs of ribs are attached posteriorly to thoracic vertebrae.The ribs are classified in three groups based on their anterior attachment.True ribsThe first seven pairs of ribs.Attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage.False ribsRib pairs 8, 9, and 10.Do not attach directly to the sternum, but instead attach to the costal cartilage of rib pair number 7.Floating ribsRib pairs 11 and 12Do not attach anteriorly to any structure.To ribcage
35 The Rib Cage (cont.) Back Learning Outcome: Locate the bones of the rib cage.Back
36 Apply Your Knowledge BRAVO! ANSWER: T F F T F True or False: ___ The sternum forms the front middle portion of the rib cage.___ The xiphoid process is a boney tip of the sternum.___ The true ribs are the first five pairs of ribs.___ False ribs attach to the costal cartilage of rib pair seven.___ Floating ribs attach to the xiphoid process.TFcartilaginousFsevenTLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the rib cage.Fdo not attach anteriorly to any structure.
37 Bones of the Shoulders, Arms, and Hands Clavicles ~ collar bonesScapulae ~ shoulder bladeArm bonesHumerusRadiusUlnaLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the shoulders, arms, and hands.The bones of the shoulders are called the pectoral girdle. They function to attach the arms to the axial skeleton.The clavicles – slender in shape. Each joins with the sternum and a scapula.Scapulae – thin, triangular-shaped flat bones located on the dorsal surface of the rib cage. Each scapula joins with the head of a humerus and a clavicle.The arm bones include the humerus, radius, and ulna.Humerus – upper part of the arm. Its proximal end joins with the scapula, and its distal end attaches at the radius and the ulna.Radius – lateral bone of the forearm. It is on the same side of the arm as the thumb. Proximally, it joins with the humerus and the ulna, and distally with the carpal bones.Ulna – medial bone of the lower arm. The proximal end of the ulna joins with the humerus to form the elbow joint. Distally, it also joins with the radius and some of the carpal bones.
38 Bones of the Shoulders, Arms, and Hands (cont.) Carpals ~ 8Metacarpals ~ 5Phalanges ~ 143 per finger2 per thumbLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the shoulders, arms, and hands.The bones of the hand include carpals, metacarpals, and phalange.Carpals are wrist bones. Each wrist contains eight marble-sized carpal bones.Metacarpals form the palms of the hands. Each hand has five metacarpals.Phalanges – the bones of the fingers14 phalanges per hand – three for each finger and two per thumb.The joints between the phalangeal bones are the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints.The joints that join the phalanges to the metacarpals are called the metacarpophalangeal joints or knuckles.
39 Apply Your Knowledge Excellent! A B B C A B C C ANSWER: Match the following:___ Clavicle A. Pectoral girdle___ Radius B. Arm bones___ Humerus C. Hands___ Carpals___ Scapula___ Ulna___ Phalanges___ MetacarpalsABBExcellent!CALearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the shoulders, arms, and hands.BCC
40 Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet Hip bonesCoxal bonesIliumIschiumPubisLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the hips, legs, and feet.Coxal bones, attach the legs to the axial skeleton and protect pelvic organs.Iilium – most superior part of a coxal bone. When you put your hands on your hips, you are touching the iliac crest.Ischium – the lower part of a coxal bone and the pubis forms the front.Pubis bones – join to form the pubic symphysis or pelvic girdle
41 Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet (cont.) Bones of legFemurPatellaTibiaFibulaLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the hips, legs, and feet.FemurThigh bone and the largest bone in the body.Its proximal end joins with the hip bone at the acetabulum (or hip socket).Ligaments and muscles hold it in place.Patella (kneecap)Attached the distal end of the femur and to the tibiaSesamoid bone – a small, rounded bone in front of the knee jointTibia (or shinbone)Medial bone of the lower leg.Its proximal end joins with the femur and fibula, and distally to the ankle bones.FibulaThe lateral bone of the lower leg.Much thinner than the tibia.It joins with the ankle bones at its distal end.
42 Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet (cont.) Bones of the footTarsals ~ 7Metatarsals ~ 5Phalanges ~ 143 per toe2 per each big toeLearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the hips, legs, and feet.Tarsal bonesForm the back of the foot.The calcaneus, or heel bone, is the largest tarsal bone.Seven per foot.MetatarsalsForm the front of the foot.Five per foot.PhalangesThe bones of the toesEach foot contains 14 – two per big toe and three per other toes.Interphalangeal joints - between these ‘lower’ phalangesMetatarsophalangeal joints –join the toes to the foot
43 Super! Apply Your Knowledge ANSWERS: Match the following: A. Coxal bones B. Leg bones C. Foot bones___ Tibia ___ Patella___ Ilium ___ Ischium___ Femur ___ Metatarsals___ Pubis ___ Fibula___ Calcaneus ___ TarsalsBBAABCALearning Outcome: Locate the bones of the hips, legs, and feet.BCCSuper!
44 Joints Junctions between bones Fibrous joints Connected together with short fibersBetween cranial bones and facial bonesSuturesLearning Outcome: Describe the three major types of joints and give examples of each.Joints are the junctions between bones and are classified by structure.Fibrous jointsBones are connected together with short fibers.The bones do not normally move against each other.Found between cranial bones and facial bones.Fibrous joints in the skull are called sutures.
45 Joints (cont.) Cartilaginous joints Disc of cartilage Slightly moveableBetween vertebraeLearning Outcome: Describe the three major types of joints and give examples of each.The bones of cartilaginous joints are connected together with a disc of cartilage.This type of joint is slightly moveable.The joints between vertebrae are cartilaginous joints.
46 Joints (cont.) Synovial joints Covered with hyaline cartilage Fibrous joint capsule Freely movableLigaments hold bones togetherLearning Outcome: Describe the three major types of joints and give examples of each.Synovial jointsBones are covered with hyaline cartilage and held together by a fibrous joint capsule.The joint capsule is lined with a synovial membrane.The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid which allows the bones to move easily against each other.Ligaments – tough, cord-like structures.Freely moveable.Examples of synovial joints are the elbows, knees, shoulders, and knuckles.
47 Apply Your Knowledge Yippee! A C B C A ANSWER: Match the following: A. Fibrous joints B. Cartilaginous joints C. Synovial joints____ Between cranial bones and facial bones____ Covered with hyaline cartilage____ Between vertebrae____ Freely movable____ Sutures in the skullCBYippee!CLearning Outcome: Describe the three major types of joints and give examples of each.A
48 Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System ArthritisOsteoarthritisDegenerative joint disease (DJD)Weight-bearing jointsRheumatoid arthritisChronic systemic inflammatory diseaseSmaller joints and surrounding tissuesLearning Outcome: Describe the common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.Arthritis is a general term meaning joint inflammation. The most common types are:Osteoarthritis – inflammatory processes or metabolic disorders as the etiology of DJD.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) –A chronic systemic inflammatory disease.Attacks the smaller joints, typically of the hands and feet, as well as the surrounding tissues of those joints. Patients experience attacks of pain and inflammation followed by periods of remission.Believed to be an autoimmune disease, triggering joint inflammation.Refer to CONNECT to see an animation about Osteoarthritis vs. Rheumatoid Arthritis .
49 Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System (cont.) Bursitis – inflammation of the bursaEwing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT)Primarily affect boneUsually lower extremitiesGout – deposits of uric acid crystals in jointsLearning Outcome: Describe the common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.Bursitis Bursa – a fluid-filled sac that cushions tendonsDue to overuse of, and trauma to joints; bacterial infectionsEwing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) Affects Caucasians between 10 and 20 years oldCauses are not clearGoutA type of arthritis that usually occurs more frequently with age.Diet changes – eliminate foods that cause the formation of uric acid (meats, fish, beer, or wine)
50 Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System (cont.) Kyphosis – humpbackLordosis –swaybackOsteogenesis imperfecta – brittle-bone diseaseOsteoporosis – thin, porous bonesLearning Outcome: Describe the common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.Kyphosis An abnormal curvature of the spine, most often at the thoracic level.Adolescent kyphosis – growth retardation or improper development of the epiphysesThe adult form – aging and degenerative disc disease of the intervertebral discs and vertebral fracture from underlying osteoporosis.LordosisAn exaggerated inward curvature of the lumbar spine; swayback. Wearing high heels is a frequent cause.Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)Brittle-bone diseaseDecreased amounts of collagen in bones; very fragile bones Eight typesHereditaryOsteoporosis Bones thin over time due to hypocalcemia – bone is broken down to release calcium and bone density decreases.Hormone deficiencies; sedentary lifestyle; lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet; bone cancers; corticosteroids; smoking; alcohol consumption; and steroid use.
51 Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System (cont.) Osteosarcoma – bone cancer from osteoblastsPaget’s disease – bones enlarge, become deformed, and weakScoliosis – an abnormal S-shaped curvature of the spineLearning Outcome: Describe the common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.Osteosarcoma A type of bone cancer usually affecting the leg bones that originates from osteoblasts It occurs most often in children, teens, and young adults and more often in males than females.The etiology of this type of cancer is unclear.Paget’s disease Causes bones to enlarge and become deformed and weak.It usually affects people older than the age of 40. This disease may be caused by a virus or various hereditary factors.Scoliosis An abnormal, S-shaped, lateral curvature of the thoracic or lumbar spine.Can develop prenatally when vertebrae do not fuse together.It can also result from diseases that cause weakness of the muscles that hold vertebrae together.Other causes of scoliosis are unknown but they may be genetic.
52 Nice Work! Apply Your Knowledge What is the difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis?Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that primarily affects weight-bearing joints.Rheumatoid arthritis chronic systemic inflammatory disease of smaller joints and surrounding tissues; it is thought to be an autoimmune disease.Learning Outcome: Describe the common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.Nice Work!
53 In Summary24.1 Bones consist of the following substances: osteons or Haversian systems; bone matrix between osteocytes (bone cells); collagen fibers and proteins; the lamella; and canaliculi.The skeleton consists of long bone, short bones, flat bones and irregular bonesThe diaphysis is the shaft of the long bone. The epiphysis is an end of a long bone. Articular cartilage covers the end of the long bones. The endosteum lines the medullary cavity. The periosteum is the membrane surrounding the diaphysis.24.1 Bones consist of the following substances: osteons or Haversian systems, bone matrix between osteocytes (bone cells), collagen fibers and proteins, the lamella, and canaliculi.Long bones include the femur and humerus; short bones include the carpals and tarsals; flat bones include the ribs and the frontal bone; irregular bones include the vertebrae and bones of the pelvic girdle.The diaphysis is the shaft of the long bone. The epiphysis is an end of a long bone. Articular cartilage covers the end of the long bones. The endosteum lines the medullary cavity. The periosteum is the membrane surrounding the diaphysis.
54 In Summary24.2 Bone functions include giving shape to body parts, protecting soft structures of the body, and assisting in movement. The red bone marrow is responsible for hematopoiesis. Bones also store calcium.24.3 Bones grow through the two types of ossification: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. The cartilage plate between the diaphysis and the epiphysis allows for growth of the long bone.
55 In Summary (cont.)24.4 Skeletal structures include the following: condyles, crests, epicondyles, foramina, fossae, heads, processes, sutures, trochanters, tubercles, and tuberosities.24.5 The major bones of the skull are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital bones. The skull also contains the fontanels, the mastoid processes, sphenoid,ethmoid, and ear ossicles. The facial bones include the mandible, maxillae, zygomatics, nasal and palatine bones, and the vomer.24.5 The major bones of the skull are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital bones. The fontanels are the membranous structures that connect the incompletely developed cranial bones. Within the skull are the mastoid processes, sphenoid, ethmoid, and ear ossicles. The facial bones include the mandible, maxillae, zygomatics, nasal and palatine bones, and the vomer. Locations shown in fi gures 24-6 and 24-7.
56 In Summary (cont.)The spinal column includes cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae; the sacrum; and the coccyx.24.7 There are 12 pairs of ribs, a sternum, and the xiphoid process.24.8 Each upper extremity includes the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges..24.6 The spinal column includes cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae; the sacrum; and the coccyx. Locations shown in figure24.7 There are 12 pairs of ribs, a sternum, and the xiphoid process. Locations shown in figure24.8 Each upper extremity includes the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. Locations shown in figure
57 In Summary (cont.)24.9 The bones of the hip, leg, and foot include the coxal bones, the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, tarsals, and phalanges.24.10 The three joint types are fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints, and synovial joints. A synovial joint consists of hyaline-covered bones held together by a fibrous joint capsule, which is lined by a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid. Ligaments hold the bones of these joints together.24.9 The bones of the hip, leg, and foot include the coxal bones, the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, tarsals, and phalanges. Locations shown in figures and24.10 The three joint types are fibrous joints (for example, sutures of the skull), cartilaginous joints (for example, the joints between vertebrae), and synovial joints (for example, the elbow).A synovial joint consists of hyaline-covered bones held together by a fibrous joint capsule, which is lined by a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid.Ligaments hold the bones of these joints together.
58 In Summary (cont.)24.11 There are many common diseases and disorders of the bones and the skeletal system with varied signs, symptoms, and treatments. Examples include arthritis, bursitis, EFT, gout, kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis, as well as osteoporosis and osteosarcoma..
59 End of Chapter 24Rigid, the skeleton of habit alone upholds the human frame.~ Virginia Woolf