Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 24 The Skeletal System 24-2 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 24.1 Describe the structure of bone tissue. 24.2 Explain the functions of bones. 24.3 Compare."— Presentation transcript:
24-2 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 24.1 Describe the structure of bone tissue. 24.2 Explain the functions of bones. 24.3 Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification. 24.4 Describe the skeletal structures and one location of each structure.
24-3 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 24.5 Locate the bones of the skull. 24.6 Locate the bones of the spinal column. 24.7 Locate the bones of the rib cage. 24.8 Locate the bones of the shoulders, arms, and hands.
24-4 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 24.9 Locate the bones of the hips, legs, and feet. 24.10 Describe the three major types of joints and give examples of each. 24.11 Describe the common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.
24-5 Introduction Bones provide structure and support 206 bones plus joints and connective tissue Divisions –Axial ~ 80 bones Skull Vertebral column Rib cage –Appendicular ~ 126 bones Arms and legs Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle
24-6 Bone Structure Bones contain various kinds of tissues – Osseous tissue – Blood vessels – Nerves Osseous tissue can appear compact or spongy Compact Bone Spongy (Cancellous) Bone
24-7 Bone Structure (cont.) Structures within compact bone – Osteons – Bone matrix – Lamella – Lacunae – Canaliculi All bones are made up of both compact and spongy bone
24-8 Bone Structure (cont.) Long bones –Femur and humerus –Parts Diaphysis Epiphysis Articular cartilage Medullary cavity Periosteum Endosteum
24-9 Bone Structure (cont.) Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones Sesamoid bones
24-10 Gender Differences in Skeletal Structure Male Skull –Larger and heavier –Forehead shorter –Face less round –Jaw larger Male pelvis –Bones are heavier and thicker –Cavity is narrower
24-11 Matching: Holes in the matrix that contain osteocytes Made of inorganic salts, collagen fibers, and proteins; between osteocytes Layers of bone surrounding the canals of the osteons Elongated cylinders that run the length of the bone Canals that connect lacunae to each other Apply Your Knowledge A.Osteons B.Bone matrix C.Lamella D.Lacunae E.Caniculi B D A E C ANSWER: Very Good!
24-12 Functions of Bones Give shape to body parts Support and protect soft structures Function in body movement Red bone marrow – hematopoiesis Store calcium
24-13 Apply Your Knowledge ANSWER: Every cell in the body needs calcium, so the body must have a large supply readily available. Why is it important for the bones to store calcium?
24-14 Bone Growth Ossification Intramembranous ossification –Bones begin as tough, fibrous membrane –Osteoblasts turn the membrane to bone
24-15 Endochondral ossification – Bones begin as cartilage models – Diaphysis ~ primary ossification center Diaphysis Bone Growth (cont.)
24-16 Diaphysis Endochondral ossification – Epiphysis ~ secondary ossification center – Epiphyseal disc ~ cartilage between epiphysis and diaphysis Bone Growth (cont.)
24-17 Building Better Bones Bone – healthy diet – Vitamin D – Calcium Bone-healthy exercises – Weight-bearing – Strength-training
24-18 Building Better Bones (cont.) Bone-healthy lifestyle – avoid smoking and alcohol Bone tests –Bone density tests –Bone scan
24-19 Apply Your Knowledge What are the two types of bone growth? ANSWER: Intramembranous ossification, in which bones begin as tough membrane and are turned to bone by osteoblasts, and endochondral ossification, in which primary ossification occurs in the diaphysis of the bone and secondary ossification occurs in the epiphysis. Good Job!
24-20 Bony Structures Bones are designed with – Projections and processes – Depressions and hollows at articulations – Openings for blood vessels and nerves
24-21 Bony Structures (cont.) TermDefinition CondyleA rounded process that usually articulates with another bone CrestA narrow, ridge-like projection EpicondyleA projection situated above a condyle ForamenAn opening through a bone that is usually a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments FossaA relatively deep pit or depression
24-22 Bony Structures (cont.) TermDefinition HeadAn enlargement on the end of a bone ProcessA prominent projection on a bone SutureAn interlocking line of union between bones TrochanterA relatively large process TubercleA small, knoblike process TuberosityA knoblike process, usually larger than a tubercle
24-23 Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ___ EpicondyleA.A relatively deep pit or depression ___ FontanelsB.An interlocking line of union between bones ___ FossaC.“Soft spots” felt on an infant’s skull ___ ProcessD.A knoblike process, usually larger than a tubercle ___ SutureE.A projection situated above a condyle ___ TuberosityF.A prominent projection on a bone C A F B D E ANSWER:
24-24 The Skull Two bone types – cranial and facial Infant skulls – Bones not completely formed – Fontanels – tough membranes – Sutures
24-25 The Skull (cont.) Cranial bones – Frontal – Parietal – Occipital – Temporal –External auditory meatus –Sphenoid and ethmoid bones –Ear ossicles Malleus Incus Stapes Click to see Skull
24-26 The Skull (cont.) Facial bones –Mandible ~ lower jaw –Maxillae ~ upper jaw –Zygomatic Cheekbones Fused nasal bones form bridge of nose –Palatine ~ hard palate –Vomer ~ divides nasal cavity Click to see Skull
24-27 The Skull (cont.) Back Parietal bone Frontal bone Occipital bone Temporal bone External auditory meatus Sphenoid bone Zygomatic bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bone Mandible Maxillae Vomer bone Sphenoid bone
24-28 Apply Your Knowledge Match the bones of the skull: ___ OccipitalA.Form the upper jawbone ___ SphenoidB.A thin bone that divides the nasal cavity ___ MandibleC.Part of the floor of the skull ___ MaxillaeD.Form the prominence of the cheeks ___ ZygomaticE.Back of skull ___ VomerF.Lower jawbone C F A D B E ANSWER: Very Good!
24-30 The Spinal Column (cont.) Cervical vertebrae –Smallest and lightest –Located in the neck –Atlas –Axis Thoracic vertebrae –Posterior attachment for ribs Lumbar vertebrae –Small of the back –Bear most weight
24-31 The Spinal Column (cont.) Sacrum –A triangular-shaped bone –Five fused vertebrae Coccyx –A small, triangular-shaped bone –3 to 5 fused vertebrae
24-32 Apply Your Knowledge Identify the sections of the spinal column and give the number of vertebrae for each. Thoracic – 12 Lumbar – 5 Sacrum – 5 fused Coccyx – 3 to 5 fused Cervical – 7 ANSWER: Right!
24-33 The Rib Cage Sternum –Breastplate –Joins with the clavicles and most ribs –Xiphoid process To ribcage
24-34 The Rib Cage (cont.) Ribs –All are attached posteriorly to thoracic vertebrae –True – 1 st 7 pairs –False – pairs 8, 9, and 10 –Floating – pairs To ribcage
24-36 Apply Your Knowledge True or False: ___ The sternum forms the front middle portion of the rib cage. ___ The xiphoid process is a boney tip of the sternum. ___ The true ribs are the first five pairs of ribs. ___ False ribs attach to the costal cartilage of rib pair seven. ___ Floating ribs attach to the xiphoid process. T T ANSWER: F cartilaginous F seven F do not attach anteriorly to any structure.
24-37 Bones of the Shoulders, Arms, and Hands Shoulders –Clavicles ~ collar bones –Scapulae ~ shoulder blade Arm bones –Humerus –Radius –Ulna
24-38 Bones of the Shoulders, Arms, and Hands (cont.) Hand –Carpals ~ 8 –Metacarpals ~ 5 –Phalanges ~ 14 3 per finger 2 per thumb
24-39 Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ___ ClavicleA.Pectoral girdle ___ RadiusB.Arm bones ___ HumerusC.Hands ___ Carpals ___ Scapula ___ Ulna ___ Phalanges ___ Metacarpals A B B B C C C A ANSWER:
24-40 Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet Hip bones –Coxal bones Ilium Ischium Pubis
24-41 Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet (cont.) Bones of leg –Femur –Patella –Tibia –Fibula
24-42 Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet (cont.) Bones of the foot –Tarsals ~ 7 –Metatarsals ~ 5 –Phalanges ~ 14 3 per toe 2 per each big toe
24-43 Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: A. Coxal bones B. Leg bonesC. Foot bones ___ Tibia___ Patella ___ Ilium___ Ischium ___ Femur___ Metatarsals ___ Pubis___ Fibula ___ Calcaneus___ Tarsals B B B AA A C C C B ANSWERS: Super!
24-44 Joints Junctions between bones Fibrous joints –Connected together with short fibers –Between cranial bones and facial bones –Sutures
24-46 Joints (cont.) Synovial joints –Covered with hyaline cartilage –Fibrous joint capsule –Freely movable –Ligaments hold bones together
24-47 Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: A. Fibrous jointsB. Cartilaginous jointsC. Synovial joints ____ Between cranial bones and facial bones ____ Covered with hyaline cartilage ____ Between vertebrae ____ Freely movable ____ Sutures in the skull A B C C A ANSWER:
24-48 Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System Arthritis –Osteoarthritis Degenerative joint disease (DJD) Weight-bearing joints –Rheumatoid arthritis Chronic systemic inflammatory disease Smaller joints and surrounding tissues
24-49 Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System (cont.) Bursitis – inflammation of the bursa Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) –Primarily affect bone –Usually lower extremities Gout – deposits of uric acid crystals in joints
24-50 Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System (cont.) Kyphosis – humpback Lordosis –swayback Osteogenesis imperfecta – brittle-bone disease Osteoporosis – thin, porous bones
24-51 Common Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System (cont.) Osteosarcoma – bone cancer from osteoblasts Paget’s disease – bones enlarge, become deformed, and weak Scoliosis – an abnormal S-shaped curvature of the spine
24-52 Apply Your Knowledge Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that primarily affects weight-bearing joints. Rheumatoid arthritis chronic systemic inflammatory disease of smaller joints and surrounding tissues; it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. What is the difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis? Nice Work!
24-53 In Summary 24.1 Bones consist of the following substances: osteons or Haversian systems; bone matrix between osteocytes (bone cells); collagen fibers and proteins; the lamella; and canaliculi. The skeleton consists of long bone, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones The diaphysis is the shaft of the long bone. The epiphysis is an end of a long bone. Articular cartilage covers the end of the long bones. The endosteum lines the medullary cavity. The periosteum is the membrane surrounding the diaphysis.
24-54 In Summary 24.2 Bone functions include giving shape to body parts, protecting soft structures of the body, and assisting in movement. The red bone marrow is responsible for hematopoiesis. Bones also store calcium. 24.3 Bones grow through the two types of ossification: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. The cartilage plate between the diaphysis and the epiphysis allows for growth of the long bone.
24-55 In Summary (cont.) 24.4 Skeletal structures include the following: condyles, crests, epicondyles, foramina, fossae, heads, processes, sutures, trochanters, tubercles, and tuberosities. 24.5 The major bones of the skull are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital bones. The skull also contains the fontanels, the mastoid processes, sphenoid,ethmoid, and ear ossicles. The facial bones include the mandible, maxillae, zygomatics, nasal and palatine bones, and the vomer.
24-56 In Summary (cont.) 24.6 The spinal column includes cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae; the sacrum; and the coccyx. 24.7 There are 12 pairs of ribs, a sternum, and the xiphoid process. 24.8 Each upper extremity includes the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges..
24-57 In Summary (cont.) 24.9 The bones of the hip, leg, and foot include the coxal bones, the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, tarsals, and phalanges. 24.10 The three joint types are fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints, and synovial joints. A synovial joint consists of hyaline-covered bones held together by a fibrous joint capsule, which is lined by a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid. Ligaments hold the bones of these joints together.
24-58 In Summary (cont.) 24.11 There are many common diseases and disorders of the bones and the skeletal system with varied signs, symptoms, and treatments. Examples include arthritis, bursitis, EFT, gout, kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis, as well as osteoporosis and osteosarcoma..
24-59 Rigid, the skeleton of habit alone upholds the human frame. ~ Virginia Woolf End of Chapter 24