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Unit 5: Chapter 15 Sudden Illness. A partial or complete loss of consciousness Caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain – When the brain.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5: Chapter 15 Sudden Illness. A partial or complete loss of consciousness Caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain – When the brain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5: Chapter 15 Sudden Illness

2 A partial or complete loss of consciousness Caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain – When the brain is deprived of blood it momentarily shuts down Triggered by: – Emotionally stressful situations – Pain – Specific medical conditions – Standing for long periods of time or overexertion – Suddenly changing positions (laying down to standing up)

3 May occur with or without warning Warning signs: Sweating Vomiting Distortion or dimming of vision Head or abdominal pain

4 Self-correcting condition Typically victim will regain consciousness within a minute Falling usually the cause of injury not fainting itself Place the victim on their back & elevate their feet ~ 12in Loosen restrictive clothing Check for life-threatening injuries

5 Do Not: Give the victim food or water Slap the victim Splash water on their face If the victim recovers quickly there is no need to call Call physician or emergency department to determine whether the episode is linked to a more serious condition

6 AKA Diabetes A condition in which the body does not produce enough insulin* or does not use insulin effectively 6 th leading cause of death in America (2007) ~18.2 million Americans currently living with diabetes Leads to other health related diseases Kidney, heart & periodontal (tooth) disease Stroke * A hormone produced in the pancreas. Needed for sugar to pass into the cells.

7 Diabetic emergency A situation in which a victim becomes ill because of an imbalance of insulin and sugar in the bloodstream Without the proper balance of sugar and insulin, the cells will starve and the body will not function properly

8 Type I diabetes (insulin-dependent) - The body produces little or no insulin Tends to develop in childhood Have to take daily injections of insulin Type II diabetes (non-insulin-dependent) – The body produces insulin, but either the cells do not use the insulin effectively or not enough insulin is produced May not need injections of insulin; Only regulated diet

9 Hyperglycemia – Insulin levels are too low, the sugar levels in the blood are too high Hypoglycemia – Insulin levels are too high, the sugar levels in the blood are too low

10 Sugar is used up too rapidly from: Took too much insulin Fails to eat adequate or due to sudden illness cannot keep food or liquids down Over exercises and burns off sugar faster than normal Experiences great emotional stress Because of the lack of sugar the brain will not function properly

11 Changes in level of consciousness Dizziness, drowsiness and confusion Irregular breathing Abnormal pulse (rapid or weak) Feeling or looking ill

12 If the victim is conscious: Check for non-life-threatening injuries Food Give them sugar Fruit juices, candy etc If the victim is unconscious: Call Monitor signs of life and breathing DO NOT try to give anything by mouth

13 When the normal function of the brain are disrupted, the electrical activity becomes irregular resulting in the loss of body control Causes: Injury Disease Fever Poisoning Infections Or a chronic condition, Epilepsy

14 Generally last 1-3 minutes Victim may experience an Aura Unusual sensation or feeling such as a visual hallucination; strange sounds, taste or smell; or an urgent need to get to safety When the victim is seizing: Their breathing may become irregular or stop Drool The eyes may roll upwards Body may become rigid

15 Non-convulsiveConvulsive Mild blackouts Body will remain relatively still Bystanders may mistake it for daydreaming More severe Sudden, uncontrolled muscular contractions Lasting several minutes

16 Do Not hold or restrain the victim Can cause musculoskeletal injuries Do Not place anything inside of their mouths Victims of seizures rarely bite their tongue or cheeks Move any objects such as furniture away from the victim So the victim does not injure themselves on it Try to stay calm

17 When the seizure is over, the victim will usually become drowsy and disoriented Allow them to rest Reassure the victim Check for life-threatening & non-life-threatening injuries

18 If is the victim is known to have periodic seizures then calling may not be needed. Call if: Seizure lasts more than 5 min Repeated seizures without regaining consciousness Victim appears to be injured No predisposing condition (epilepsy) Is pregnant Is an infant or child experiencing a febrile seizure Has diabetes Takes place in water Fails to regain consciousness after seizure

19 Infants or young children who may be at risk for epilepsy, as well as for seizures brought on by a rapid increase in body temperature. Most common in children under 5 who run a rectal fever of 102º Triggered by infections of the: Ear Throat Digestive system

20 A sudden rise in body temp Change in the level of consciousness Rhythmic jerking of the head and limbs Urinating or defecating Confusion Drowsiness Crying out Becoming rigid Holding the breath Rolling the eyes upward

21 Cool the body down immediately (be careful not to cool of the child too much) Remove clothing Give the child a lukewarm sponge bath Contact the infants physician Make the infant comfortable Do not try to restrain the child Do not place anything in their mouth

22 Cerebrovascular or “brain attack” A disruption of blood flow to a part of the brain, causing permanent damage to brain tissue Causes: Blood clots Ruptured arteries in the brain caused by a head injury, or high blood pressure Aneurysm – a weak area in the wall of an artery that balloons out and can rupture Atherosclerosis Tumor or swelling from a head injury may compress an artery

23 “Mini-Stroke” A temporary episode that is caused by a disruption in blood flow to a part of the brain Signals usually disappear within minutes or hours upon onset Victims who experience TIA have a greater chance of having a stroke Call situation

24 High blood pressure Increases risk of stroke 7x’s Puts pressure on the arteries, and makes them likely to burst

25 UnpreventablePreventable Age Genetics Family history of stroke TIA Diabetes Heart disease Control your blood pressure Do not smoke Eat a healthy Diet Exercise regularly Control diabetes

26 Looking or feeling ill Displaying abnormal behavior Weakness and numbness in the face, arms or legs Usually on 1 side of the body (left – most commonly) Difficulty talking Blurred or dimmed vision Unequal eye pupils

27 Severe headache Dizziness Confusion Change in mood Ringing in the ears Drooling Unconscious Lose bowel or bladder control

28 Call situation If unconscious, make sure the airway is open If conscious, check from non-life-threatening injuries Reassure the victim Do not give them anything to eat or drink Use simple ‘yes’ or ‘no’ questions


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