Presentation on theme: "Nervous System Problems Module 6. 2 Nervous System Problems Function Body information gathering, storage, and control system Consist of the brain and."— Presentation transcript:
2 Nervous System Problems Function Body information gathering, storage, and control system Consist of the brain and complex network of nerve cells and fibres
3 Nervous System Problems Nervous system disorder Unconsciousness Head injury Concussion Cerebral compression Skull fracture Stroke Epilepsy
4 Nervous System Problems Unconsciousness It is a depression of the central nervous system
5 Nervous System Problems Unconsciousness Causes 1. stroke, 2. head injury 3. infection 4. medication, drug, or toxin exposure 5. low blood pressure 6. fainting (e.g. prolonged standing) 7. overdose with alcohol, barbiturates or narcotics
6 Nervous System Problems Unconsciousness Causes 8. low blood sugar levels 9. diabetes that is out of control 10. severe liver disease or kidney disease 11. seizures 12. abnormally low body temperature 13. severe salt imbalances, 14. brain tumors
7 Nervous System Problems Unconsciousness Level of responsiveness Apply AVPU code A – Alert, open eyes and response to questions V – Voice, answer simple question and obey commands P – Pain, response to pain U – unresponsiveness to the above stimulus
8 Nervous System Problems Unconsciousness Treatment Check responsiveness If unresponsive, call for ambulance Open the airway, check for breathing and circulation Standby to perform CPR Treat any associated injuries
9 Nervous System Problems Unconsciousness Precaution Ensure the tongue does not block the airway Unconscious casualty with neck (spinal) injury, apply jaw-thrust to open the airway Do not move the casualty unnecessarily
10 Nervous System Problems Head injury Concussion Cerebral compression Skull fracture
11 Nervous System Problems Head Injury Concussion
12 Nervous System Problems Concussion Causes Traffic accident Sports injuries Falls Blow received in fights
13 Nervous System Problems Concussion Sign and symptoms Brief period of unconsciousness following a blow to the head. Dizziness or nausea on recovery Loss of memory of any events that occurred at the time of, or immediately preceding the injury. Mild, generalised headache
14 Nervous System Problems Concussion Treatment Apply AVPU code to determine level of responsiveness Monitor pulse, breathing First aider should not leave the casualty unattended. Seek medical advice if casualty develop headache, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness after a blow to the head.
15 Nervous System Problems Concussion Precaution Call for an ambulance if there is deterioration in level of response. Call the ambulance if casualty did not recover fully Casualty who have head injury should also be treated for neck injury
16 Nervous System Problems Head Injury Cerebral Compression a build up of pressure on the brain
17 Nervous System Problems Cerebral Compression Causes Accumulation of blood within the skull Swelling of injured brain tissues due to infection Stroke or ruptured blood vessel in the brain Brain Tumour
18 Nervous System Problems Cerebral Compression Sign and symptoms Level of response deteriorates Severe headache Unequal pupil size Mild, generalized headache Weakness/paralysis on one side of face or body Temperature is high, face flushed Drowsiness Disorientation and Irritability
19 Nervous System Problems Cerebral Compression Treatment Apply AVPU code to determine level of responsiveness Monitor pulse, breathing Maintain open airway if the casualty become unconscious First aider should not leave the casualty unattended Arrange to transport to hospital
20 Nervous System Problems Cerebral Compression Precaution The condition may occur immediately or few hours/days after the injury, so try to find out if casualty has a recent history of head injury Seek medical attention in such situation.
21 Nervous System Problems Head Injury Skull Fracture
22 Nervous System Problems Skull Fracture Signs and Symptoms Wound or bruise on the head Soft area or depression on the scalp Bruise on one or both eyes Clear fluid or watery blood oozing in the ear or nose Head distortion Deterioration on level of consciousness
23 Nervous System Problems Skull Fracture Treatment Determine level of responsiveness Monitor pulse, breathing Maintain open airway if casualty is unconscious Help the casualty to lie down, do not turn the head Control any bleeding Discharge to nose or ear, cover with clean cloth. Do not plug the ear Arrange to transport to hospital
24 Nervous System Problems Skull Fracture Precaution A casualty with a skull fracture may also have neck/spinal fracture and should be treated accordingly
25 Nervous System Problems. Stroke A condition in which the blood supply to part of the brain is suddenly or seriously disrupted by a blood clot or ruptured blood vessel.
26 Nervous System Problems Stroke Signs and symptoms Dizziness Double vision Unsteady gait Slurred speech Weakness of limbs Sudden loss of vision Difficulty in swallowing Sudden paralysis of an arm or leg Sudden and very severe headache Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm or leg
27 Nervous System Problems Stroke Treatment Determine level of responsiveness Monitor pulse, breathing Loosen any clothing that can disrupt breathing Maintain open airway if casualty is unconscious Arrange to transport to hospital
28 Nervous System Problems Stroke Precaution Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink because of difficulty of swallowing.
29 Nervous System Problems Epilepsy It is a common disorder that causes sudden, uncontrollable electrical surges in the brain. These brief interruptions in the brain activities causes periods of altered awareness, known as seizures whose nature and intensity vary from person to person.
30 Causes Severe head injury Infections that damage the brain Toxic substances that affect the brain Brain tumor and stroke Hereditary disease affecting the brain High Fever Lack of oxygen to the brain Metabolism or nutrition imbalance Nervous System Problems Epilepsy
31 Nervous System Problems Epilepsy Signs and symptoms Casualty suddenly falls unconscious, becomes rigid and arching the back Bluish discoloration of lips and and flushed face Convulsive muscle movements Incontinence of urine and loss of bowel control Objectives Protect casualty from injuring himself To render care when consciousness regains
32 Nervous System Problems Epilepsy Treatment Before the seizure Make a space around the casualty and remove potentially dangerous item Catch hold of casualty and gently place him on the ground During a seizure Do not put anything into the mouth DO not restrain the casualty To take note how long the fit last To note which part of the body is affected by the seizure
33 After seizure When the seizure has stopped, open airway and check for breathing. Loosen tight clothing Monitor pulse and respiration Check the level of responsiveness Reassure and communicate with the casualty gently Remain with the casualty until he recovers from his disorientation and confusion if it is present Contact the parent or guardian if the child had a seizure Nervous System Problems Epilepsy
34 Nervous System Problems Epilepsy Precaution Do not put anything in the casualty’s mouth or use force to restrain limbs Arrange for transport to hospital immediately if: The casualty is unconscious for more than 10 minutes Seizures continues for more than 5 minutes Repeated seizures For a child with high fever, bring down the temperature of the child by cooling and send to hospital
35 Nervous System Problems Taser Gun Operate as a Stun gun Objective in use of Taser Gun Designed to temporarily incapacitate a person by the use of Electro-Muscular Disruption (EMD) technology Effects of Taser Gun EMD overrides the sensory and motor nervous systems in the area and causes an uncontrollable contraction of the muscle tissues This results in a temporary physical incapacitation of the subject regardless of pain tolerance or mental focus.
36 Nervous System Problems Taser Gun Injury Signs and symptoms Daze Disorientation and confusion Partial muscle paralysis – too weak to move. Gait unsteady.
37 Nervous System Problems Taser Gun Injury Precautions Taser probes must not be deployed on sensitive areas of the body (head, neck, pelvic triangle - groin, and the back of the knee ) Hitting these sensitive areas may result in complications if the probes hit a major vein or artery. Blindness can also result if any of the probes hit the eyes. For probes that are stuck on sensitive areas of the subject’s body, the casualty should be conveyed to the hospital A&E department.
38 Nervous System Problems Taser Gun Injury Treatment Arrest bleeding. Attend to minor injuries such as bruises and cuts. Confusion - check on orientation to time place and person. Casualty aware of the time of the day, his present location and who he is talking to. See that casualty sustain a normal gait when walking. Seek medical attention if effects persist.
The End Module 6 Nervous System Problems For training purpose only Not for sale