2Sudden Illness Many different illnesses may occur suddenly Many become medical emergenciesKnowledge of a victim’s specific illness is not needed to give first aid
3General Signs and Symptoms of Sudden Illness Person feels ill, dizzy, confused or weakSkin color changesFlushed, pale or ashenSweatingBreathing changesNausea, vomiting
4General Care for Sudden Illness Call for unexplained sudden illnessHelp victim rest and avoid getting chilled or overheatedReassure victimDo not give victim anything to eat or drinkWatch for changesBe prepared to give BLS
5F.A.S.T. Stroke Interruption of blood flow to part of brain Kills nerve cells and affects brain functionVictims need medical help immediatelyTo decrease chance of permanent damageMore common in older adultsAbout 795,000 people a year have a stroke, resulting in about 136,000 deaths year in United StatesF.A.S.T.
6Time is Critical Take note of the time that symptoms began Call immediatelyDrugs can minimize effects of stroke but only if administered soonTell dispatcher you believe victim has had a stroke and describe signs and symptoms
7Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale Ask victim to smile.Ask victim to close eyes and raise both arms out in front of body.Ask victim to repeat a sentence.
8Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale continued Ask the victim to smile1 side droopsAsk victim to close eyes and raise both arms in front of body1 arm drifts lower than otherAsk victim to say “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks”Slurs words, uses wrong words, cannot speak
9First Aid for Stroke Call 9-1-1. Monitor victim and be prepared to give BLS.Have victim lie on back with head and shoulders slightly raised.Loosen constrictive clothing.Turn victim’s head if necessary for vomit or drool to drain.
10Asthma Affects 1 in 20 adults Affects 1 in 10 school-age children Many victims carry medication for known conditionUntreated, severe attack can be fatal
11Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes emphysema and chronic bronchitisOver 12 million people in United States diagnosed with COPD, with 12 million more who may have COPD but have not been diagnosedCOPD is the 4th leading cause of death in United StatesMay cause respiratory distress and breathing emergencies
12Hyperventilation Fast, deep breathing Usually caused by anxiety or stressUsually doesn’t last longLook for other signs and symptoms of illnessHelp person calm down and relax and breathe slowly
13Fainting Caused by temporary reduced blood flow to brain Hot weather, fright, emotional shock, lack of food, suddenly standingUsually not sign of serious problem unless it occurs often or person does not recover quickly
14Signs and Symptoms Before Fainting DizzinessSweatingNauseaBlurring or dimming of visionGeneralized weakness
15Causes of Seizures Epilepsy High fever (infants, young children) Head injuriesLow blood sugarPoisoningElectric shock
16Facts About Epilepsy Affects 3 million people in United States About 200,000 new cases each year10% of United States population will have seizure in their lifetimeMales slightly more likely to develop epilepsy than femalesIncidence greater in African Americans
17Facts About Epilepsy continued In 70% of new cases cause not apparent50% of people with new cases of epilepsy will have seizures70% enter remission75% of people who are seizure-free on medication after 2 to 5 years can withdraw from medication10% of new cases may still have seizures despite optimal medical management
18Prevention of Seizures First time seizures can seldom be preventedMedications can prevent in diagnosed disorderPrevent head injuries
19Common Types of Seizures Complex partial seizurePerson seems dazed, may mumble or wanderAbsence seizurePerson seems to stare blankly into space, doesn’t respond to others
20Common Types of Seizures continued Generalized tonic seizureConvulsions or grand mal seizurePerson loses consciousness, falls, is stiff, then experiences jerking of muscles (clonic)Febrile seizuresCaused by high fever in infants/young childrenConvulsions similar to tonic clonic
21First Aid for Seizures Prevent injury. Loosen constricting clothing. Check for medical ID.Turn person to one side if vomiting.After seizure, keep airway open.Be reassuring.
22Altered Mental Status Victim may be: Confused Disoriented Combative DrowsyPartially or wholly unresponsive
23Common Causes of Altered Mental Status SeizuresStrokeHead injuryPoisoning, drug use or overdoseHigh feverDiabetic emergenciesAny condition causing lowered blood oxygen
24Care for Altered Mental Status Do not assume person is intoxicated or using drugsDiabetic emergencies can produce behavior similar to intoxicationAltered mental status is often sign of deteriorating condition
25Diabetic Emergencies Blood sugar levels not well regulated by body Over 25 million people in United States have diabetesAbout 7 million haven’t been diagnosedChronic and incurable
26Primary Types of Diabetes Type I (insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset) diabetesBody does not produce enough or any insulinPerson must receive insulinType 2 (non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) diabetesBody cells do not use insulin wellWith either type blood glucose levels may be too high
27Facts About Diabetes Kills over 70,000 people each year 6th leading cause of deathContributes to another 160,000 deaths annually from related causesContributes to heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nervous system damageFoot infections often lead to amputation
28Diabetic Emergencies Hypoglycemia Person takes too much insulin Person doesn’t eat enough or right foodsUses blood sugar too fastExerciseEmotional stressHyperglycemiaPerson takes too little insulinPerson eats too much or wrong foodsDoes not use blood sugar with activity
30First Aid for Low Blood Sugar Confirm victim has diabetes. Look for medical ID.Give victim sugar.3 glucose tablets½ cup fruit juice1-2 sugar packets5-6 pieces hard candyGive more sugar after 15 minutes if victim still feels ill.Call if victim becomes unresponsive or has significant symptoms.
31First Aid for High Blood Sugar If you suspect high blood sugar, call and monitor person.In the early stage, you may not be able to tell whether victim suffers from high or low blood sugar. In this case:Give sugar as for hypoglycemia.If the victim does not improve within 15 minutes, or victim’s signs and symptoms become worse, callIn later stage, high blood sugar is a medical emergency:Call immediately .Put unresponsive victim in recovery position and monitor breathing.