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© 2011 National Safety Council SUDDEN ILLNESS LESSON 16 16-1
© 2011 National Safety Council Sudden Illness Many different illnesses may occur suddenly Many become medical emergencies Knowledge of a victim’s specific illness is not needed to give first aid 16-2
© 2011 National Safety Council General Signs and Symptoms of Sudden Illness Person feels ill, dizzy, confused or weak Skin color changes -Flushed, pale or ashen Sweating Breathing changes Nausea, vomiting 16-3
© 2011 National Safety Council General Care for Sudden Illness Call 9-1-1 for unexplained sudden illness Help victim rest and avoid getting chilled or overheated Reassure victim Do not give victim anything to eat or drink Watch for changes -Be prepared to give BLS 16-4
© 2011 National Safety Council Stroke Interruption of blood flow to part of brain -Kills nerve cells and affects brain function Victims need medical help immediately -To decrease chance of permanent damage More common in older adults About 795,000 people a year have a stroke, resulting in about 136,000 deaths year in United States F.A.S.T. 16-5
© 2011 National Safety Council Time is Critical Take note of the time that symptoms began Call 9-1-1 immediately -Drugs can minimize effects of stroke but only if administered soon -Tell dispatcher you believe victim has had a stroke and describe signs and symptoms 16-6
© 2011 National Safety Council Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale 1.Ask victim to smile. 2.Ask victim to close eyes and raise both arms out in front of body. 3.Ask victim to repeat a sentence. 16-7
© 2011 National Safety Council Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale continued Ask the victim to smile -1 side droops Ask victim to close eyes and raise both arms in front of body -1 arm drifts lower than other Ask victim to say “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks” -Slurs words, uses wrong words, cannot speak 16-8
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Stroke 1.Call 9-1-1. 2.Monitor victim and be prepared to give BLS. 3.Have victim lie on back with head and shoulders slightly raised. 4.Loosen constrictive clothing. 5.Turn victim’s head if necessary for vomit or drool to drain. 16-9
© 2011 National Safety Council Asthma Affects 1 in 20 adults Affects 1 in 10 school-age children Many victims carry medication for known condition Untreated, severe attack can be fatal 16-10
© 2011 National Safety Council Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis Over 12 million people in United States diagnosed with COPD, with 12 million more who may have COPD but have not been diagnosed COPD is the 4 th leading cause of death in United States May cause respiratory distress and breathing emergencies 16-11
© 2011 National Safety Council Hyperventilation Fast, deep breathing Usually caused by anxiety or stress Usually doesn’t last long Look for other signs and symptoms of illness Help person calm down and relax and breathe slowly 16-12
© 2011 National Safety Council Fainting Caused by temporary reduced blood flow to brain -Hot weather, fright, emotional shock, lack of food, suddenly standing Usually not sign of serious problem unless it occurs often or person does not recover quickly 16-13
© 2011 National Safety Council Signs and Symptoms Before Fainting Dizziness Sweating Nausea Blurring or dimming of vision Generalized weakness 16-14
© 2011 National Safety Council Causes of Seizures Epilepsy High fever (infants, young children) Head injuries Low blood sugar Poisoning Electric shock 16-15
© 2011 National Safety Council Facts About Epilepsy Affects 3 million people in United States About 200,000 new cases each year 10% of United States population will have seizure in their lifetime Males slightly more likely to develop epilepsy than females Incidence greater in African Americans 16-16
© 2011 National Safety Council Facts About Epilepsy continued In 70% of new cases cause not apparent 50% of people with new cases of epilepsy will have seizures 70% enter remission 75% of people who are seizure-free on medication after 2 to 5 years can withdraw from medication 10% of new cases may still have seizures despite optimal medical management 16-17
© 2011 National Safety Council Prevention of Seizures First time seizures can seldom be prevented Medications can prevent in diagnosed disorder Prevent head injuries 16-18
© 2011 National Safety Council Common Types of Seizures Complex partial seizure -Person seems dazed, may mumble or wander Absence seizure -Person seems to stare blankly into space, doesn’t respond to others 16-19
© 2011 National Safety Council Common Types of Seizures continued Generalized tonic seizure -Convulsions or grand mal seizure -Person loses consciousness, falls, is stiff, then experiences jerking of muscles (clonic) Febrile seizures -Caused by high fever in infants/young children -Convulsions similar to tonic clonic 16-20
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Seizures 1.Prevent injury. 2.Loosen constricting clothing. Check for medical ID. 3.Turn person to one side if vomiting. 4.After seizure, keep airway open. 5.Be reassuring. 16-21
© 2011 National Safety Council Altered Mental Status Victim may be: -Confused -Disoriented -Combative -Drowsy -Partially or wholly unresponsive 16-22
© 2011 National Safety Council Common Causes of Altered Mental Status Seizures Stroke Head injury Poisoning, drug use or overdose High fever Diabetic emergencies Any condition causing lowered blood oxygen 16-23
© 2011 National Safety Council Care for Altered Mental Status Do not assume person is intoxicated or using drugs -Diabetic emergencies can produce behavior similar to intoxication Altered mental status is often sign of deteriorating condition 16-24
© 2011 National Safety Council Diabetic Emergencies Blood sugar levels not well regulated by body Over 25 million people in United States have diabetes -About 7 million haven’t been diagnosed Chronic and incurable 16-25
© 2011 National Safety Council Primary Types of Diabetes Type I (insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset) diabetes -Body does not produce enough or any insulin -Person must receive insulin Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) diabetes -Body cells do not use insulin well With either type blood glucose levels may be too high 16-26
© 2011 National Safety Council Facts About Diabetes Kills over 70,000 people each year -6 th leading cause of death Contributes to another 160,000 deaths annually from related causes -Contributes to heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nervous system damage Foot infections often lead to amputation 16-27
© 2011 National Safety Council Diabetic Emergencies Hypoglycemia Person takes too much insulin Person doesn’t eat enough or right foods Uses blood sugar too fast −Exercise −Emotional stress Hyperglycemia Person takes too little insulin Person eats too much or wrong foods Does not use blood sugar with activity 16-28
© 2011 National Safety Council 16-29 Diabetic Emergencies continued
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Low Blood Sugar 1.Confirm victim has diabetes. Look for medical ID. 2.Give victim sugar. 3 glucose tablets ½ cup fruit juice 1-2 sugar packets 5-6 pieces hard candy 3.Give more sugar after 15 minutes if victim still feels ill. 4.Call 9-1-1 if victim becomes unresponsive or has significant symptoms. 16-30
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for High Blood Sugar 1.If you suspect high blood sugar, call 9-1-1 and monitor person. 2.In the early stage, you may not be able to tell whether victim suffers from high or low blood sugar. In this case: Give sugar as for hypoglycemia. If the victim does not improve within 15 minutes, or victim’s signs and symptoms become worse, call 9-1-1. 3.In later stage, high blood sugar is a medical emergency: Call 9-1-1 immediately. Put unresponsive victim in recovery position and monitor breathing. 16-31
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Chapter 15. Common Sudden Illnesses Fainting. Diabetic emergencies. Seizures. Stroke. Poisoning. Heart attack. Shock.
Chapter 15: Sudden Illness. 292 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross.
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© 2011 National Safety Council SHOCK LESSON
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