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Presentation on theme: "STAGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:

Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development

2 Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust
Infancy: birth to 18 months Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust Vocabulary word: marasmus: to die from a lack of human touch, warmth (monkey experiment)

3 Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Early childhood (2 – 3 years) Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and A sense of independence (“NO!”) Success leads to feelings of autonomy Failure results in feelings of shame, doubt Key tasks: toilet training, gross, fine motor skills

4 Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
Preschool (3 to 5 years) Key task: Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment Success at this stage leads to a sense of purpose Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt Unstructured free play, “superheroes” important

5 Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority
School age: 6 – 11 years Key event: school Children need to cope with new social, academic demands Success leads to a sense of competence Failure results in feelings of inferiority

6 Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Key element: Social relationships Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity Success leads to an ability to stay true to oneself Failure leads to role confusion and weak sense of self Moving towards independence, autonomy

7 Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adulthood (19 – 40 years) Key: relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people Success leads to strong relationships Failure leads to loneliness, isolation Intimacy: Not sex; emotional intimacy=the ability to reveal your true self to another

8 Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle adulthood: years Key: Work, parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them (children, positive change that benefits others) Success leads to feelings of usefulness, accomplishment Failure results in shallow involvement in the world, emptiness, ‘something missing’

9 Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Maturity (65 – death) Key: Reflection on one’s life Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment Success leads to feelings of wisdom, peace Failure results in regret, bitterness, despair


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