Presentation on theme: "PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development Chapter 19 Early Adulthood: Psychosocial Development."— Presentation transcript:
PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development Chapter 19 Early Adulthood: Psychosocial Development
Tasks of Adulthood Maslow’s –Love and belonging –Success and esteem Erikson’s –Intimacy vs. isolation –Generativity vs. stagnation
Tasks of Adulthood Social Clock: a culturally set timetable that establishes when various events and behaviors in life are appropriate and called for. –Age-stratified: society in developed regions –Less age-stratified: society in less developed regions –SES: primary influence
Intimacy Two primary sources –Close friendships –Sexual partnership
Friendship More important than family members as a buffer against stress Guides to self-awareness Sources of positive feelings
Friendship Young adulthood is the prime time to solidify friendships and make new ones: –Most try to postpone the overriding commitments of marriage and having children. –Because today’s elderly are healthier, few young adults must provide care for aging parents.
Gateways of Attraction Four factors for friendship as romance: –Physical attractiveness –Apparent availability –Absence of unwanted traits and other “exclusion criteria” –Frequent exposure
Gender Differences Friendships between men are often based on shared activities and interests, and discussions center on external matters. Friendships between women tend to be more intimate and emotional, based on shared confidences and practical assistance in times of crisis.
Gender Differences Women are much more likely than men to reveal their weaknesses to friends. It may be primarily a way coping with problems. Men tend to be more competitive. Hence, friendship for men may be largely a way of maintaining a favorable self-concept.
Gender Differences Reasons why men’s friendships may be less intimate than women’s: –Mutual vulnerability is a characteristic that is discouraged in men. –The tendency of boys to be more active and girls more verbal may lay the groundwork for interaction patterns in adulthood. –Many men avoid any expression of affection toward other men for fear of its association with homosexuality.
Cross-Sex Friendships Expand each partner’s perspective on many issues Problematic Men often try to sexualize a platonic friendship
Dimensions of Love 3 components: –Passion –Intimacy –Commitment
Dimensions of Love Liking—intimacy Infatuation—passion Empty love—commitment Romantic love—passion and intimacy Fatuous love—passion Companionate love—intimacy and commitment Consummate love—passion, intimacy and commitment
Development of Love and Marriage Cohabitation: living together –A prelude to marriage –Cohabitants tend to be less happy, less healthy, and less satisfied with their financial status
Factors Influencing Marital Success Maturity of the partners Homogamy vs. heterogamy Social homogamy Marital equity
Divorce Role of expectations First emotional impact: increased hostility Adjustments –Unhappy partners suddenly notice lost benefits that they did not know they had –Hadn’t realized the strength of their emotional dependence.
Divorced, with Children Add financial pressure Require ex-spouses to compromise about visitation Visibly remind both parents what might have been (or what actually used to be) Make remarriage less likely
Spouse Abuse Contributing Factors –Social pressures that create stress –Cultural values that condone violence –Personality pathologies –Drug and alcohol addiction –History of child maltreatment
Spouse Abuse Two Forms: –Common couple violence: yelling, insulting, and physical attack –Patriarchal terrorism: husband uses violent methods of accelerating intensity to isolate, degrade, and punish wife
Spouse Abuse Prevention –Educating children and protecting them from violence –Counteracting the poverty and deprivation that underlies abuse –Treating the alcoholism –Family examples and family connections
Generativity Four traditional stages of the career cycle: –Exploration –Establishment –Maintenance –Decline (retirement)
Today’s Workforce Work path for individuals is much less linear and secure Skills are quite specific, yet may be obsolete tomorrow Much more diverse
Implications of Trends Young adults should not plan, or train for, one job in one career that will last a lifetime Workers today need greater sensitivity to cultural differences Young adults should focus on developing basic skills communication, logical thought, and human relations.
Implications of Trends Women, minority-group members, and those with a disability may continue to bump into a glass ceiling.
Dual-Earner Family Life Myth: children suffer from neglect Opportunities: higher family income, more active relationships with their fathers, and the opportunity to witness more flexible role models Challenges: perception of marital equity, family logistics, salary inequity.
Alternative Forms of Parenthood Stepparents, adoptive parents, foster parents –Strong bonds between parent and child are particularly hard to create when a child has already formed definite attachments to other caregivers who are still available to the child. –Because they are legally connected to their children for life, adoptive parents have an advantage over stepparents in establishing bonds with their children.