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By: Sam Mentkowski & Rachael Shulta. Identify the structures of the respiratory system and state the function of each structure. (k)

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Presentation on theme: "By: Sam Mentkowski & Rachael Shulta. Identify the structures of the respiratory system and state the function of each structure. (k)"— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Sam Mentkowski & Rachael Shulta

2 Identify the structures of the respiratory system and state the function of each structure. (k)

3 The organs of the respiratory system can be divided into two groups, or tracts: upper respiratory tract & lower respiratory tract. TRUE! The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses and the larynx. pharynx BALONEY!

4 Nose Nose hairs Mucous membrane Cilia covering membrane Produces mucous to provide warm moisture to the air entering the body Where air enters & leaves respiratory system Filters particles & push them to pharynx Trap dirt, dust & bacteria that live on them (Upper Respiratory Tract)

5 Sinuses Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Passageway for air, drains naval cavities Air spaces in skull to reduce weight Receives objects from mouth Lower part of throat

6 Flexibility & protection of larynx: thyroid cartilage. Opening through which air passes: glottis. Flap of tissue that covers your glottis when you swallow & blocks food from getting into your larynx: epiglottis. Vibrate to produce sound: vocal cords. Passageway for air into lungs, cilia catch impurities: trachea. WORD BANK: mucous membrane, epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, nasopharynx, trachea, glottis, vocal cords (Lower Respiratory Tract)

7 Branched airways leading from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs in lungs: bronchial tree. Enters lungs: bronchi. Smaller branches off of bronchi: bronchioles. Smallest parts of respiratory system, involved in gas exchange, surrounded by capillaries: alveoli. Encase the lungs, involved in regulating pressure in lungs: Pleural membranes. WORD BANK: alveoli, bronchi, epiglottis, bronchial tree, pleural membranes, mucous membranes, bronchioles

8 Nose Pharynx Trachea Left Primary Bronchus Tertiary Bronchus Diaphragm Right Primary Bronchus Lung Larynx Secondary Bronchus WORD BANK: Lung Pharynx Trachea Left Primary Bronchus Right Primary Bronchus Nose Larynx Secondary Bronchus Tertiary Bronchus Diaphragm

9 Collect & analyze data regarding the warming function of the nasal passageways. (r)

10 Why are nasal passageways better at heating the inhaled air than the mouth? a) mucous membranes around the nasal chonchae b) shorter distance to the lungs c) the nostrils are smaller openings d) because they are TRUTH OR BALONEY?! Inhaling colder air through the mouth is good for the lungs. can irritate BALONEY!

11 According to the class data, the nasal passageways /mouth heat(s) the air better.

12 Describe the process of ventilation. (k)

13 The definition of ventilation is.. a) the vital capacity plus the residual volume b) the intensity of breathing c) movement of air into and out of lungs d) running around in circles Another name for ventilation is.. a) chewing b) breathing c) sleeping d) running

14 The membranes that surround the lungs are the pleural, parietal, and visceral membrane. TRUE! The lungs explode if its membranes are punctured. collapse BALONEY!

15 1. Contraction of external intercostal muscles pulls ribs upward and outward. 2. Diaphragm contracts. 3. Volume of thoracic cavity increases. 4. Pressure in pleural cavity decreases. 5. Lungs inflate as air rushes in. WORD BANK: INCREASES, DECREASES, ELASTIC, DEFLATE, DIAPHRAGM, INFLATE, INTERCOSTAL

16 1. Muscles of inhalation relax due to elastic recoil. 2. Volume of thoracic cavity decreases. 3. Pressure in pleural cavity increases. 4. Lungs deflate. WORD BANK: DECREASES, INCREASES, INFLATE, ELASTIC RECOIL, DEFLATE, DIAPHRAGM

17 Intercostal or Abdominal? The ribs are raised by the contraction of the intercostal muscles, which increases the size of thoracic cavity. Muscles that help to force out more than the normal volume of air by pulling the ribs downward & inward include the intercostal muscles. The diaphragm can be forced to move higher than normal by the contraction of the abdominal muscles.

18 Which of the following is false regarding surfactant? a) is a phospholipid b) reduces elastic recoil c) warming function of nasal passageway d) prevents complete deflation of our lungs

19 Determine how certain factors affect breathing rate. (r)

20 Respiratory areas of the brain (2) Chemical Levels Emotional State Physical Fitness Control rate of respiratory pattern Controls breathing & heart rate Dependent on endurance/stamina Controls autonomic functions Provide feedback for control of breathing **You will be given a situation and you will need to explain what the respiratory response will be!

21 Define terms associated with lung volumes and capacities. (k)

22 Tidal Volume Inspiratory Reserve Volume Expiratory Reserve Volume The additional volume of air that can be inhaled with maximum effort after a normal inspiration The volume of air breathed in and out without conscious effort The additional volume of air that can be forcible exhaled after normal exhalation

23 Vital Capacity Total Capacity Residual Volume The volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation: VC = TV + IRV + ERV The vital capacity plus the residual volume: = VC + RV

24 Use a spirometer to obtain lung volumes and capacities and interpret the results. (s)

25 WORD BANK: Tidal Volume (TV) Vital Capacity (VC) Inspiratory Reserve Volume ( IRV) Total Lung Capacity (TLC) Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) Residual Volume (RV)

26 Using the data, calculate the vital capacity. VC = TV + IRV + ERV Using the data, calculate the total lung capacity. TLC = VC + RV

27 Why are breathing capacities measured? a) to see how warm the air we breathe is b) because it’s required by Mrs. Cerletty c) to track progress of diseases d) to find out what we ate for lunch Which of the following factors may affect a person’s VC? a) smoking b) body type c) exercise d) all of the above may affect a person’s VC

28 Define each step of the breathing cycle. (k)

29 Ventilation External Respiration Transportation Internal Respiration Movement of gases through the bloodstream Inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide (breathing) Gas exchange occurring between blood and cells Gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood

30 Interpret diagrams related to the breathing cycle. (r)

31 The definition of partial pressure is.. a) the pressure one gas produces in a mixture of gases b) the pressure half the gases produce in a mixture c) the pressure all the gases produce in a mixture d) a mixture of gases What causes gases to move from the alveoli to the capillaries or capillaries to alveoli? a) an abundance of pressure b) not enough pressure c) because our body knows to do that d) differences in partial pressure

32 Given partial pressure data, show the proper movement of gases at the site of alveoli.

33 Alveoli are the site of gas exchange. TRUE! The protein that transports oxygen to the cells is carbohydrates. hemoglobin BALONEY!

34 What is the main function of gas exchange? a) to maintain a steady level of CO 2 in the bloodstream b) moisturize the air c) turn blue blood to red blood d) to keep our feet healthy How is CO2 transported throughout the body? a) bound to hemoglobin b) dissolved in plasma c) bicarbonate d) all of the above are correct

35 Relate the breathing cycle to everyday situations. (r)

36 HyperventilationHypoventilation Exercise Traveling from low to high altitude locations Exposure to carbon monoxide Respiratory illnesses Smoking

37 Analyze data related to breathing cycles. (s)

38 When you breathe normally, you are inhaling more O 2. TRUE! O2 is the most responsible gas for stimulating increases & decreases in the breathing cycle. BALONEY! CO 2 CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER! During exercise, CO2 production increases/decreases.

39 When a person hyperventilates in fresh air, his CO 2 content decreases. A decrease in CO 2 is followed by a decrease in the rate of respiration. The supply of blood CO 2 during hypoventilation into a paper bag increases. An increase in blood CO 2 content is followed by an increase in the rate of respiration. WORD BANK: Increase, decrease, increases, decreases

40 TRY NOT TO HYPERVENTILATE!


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