Presentation on theme: "By: Sam Mentkowski & Rachael Shulta"— Presentation transcript:
1 By: Sam Mentkowski & Rachael Shulta RESPIRATORY SYSTEMBy: Sam Mentkowski & Rachael Shulta
2 LEARNING TARGET:Identify the structures of the respiratory system and state the function of each structure. (k)
3 Truth or BaloneyThe organs of the respiratory system can be divided into two groups, or tracts: upper respiratory tract & lower respiratory tract. TRUE! The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses and the larynx. pharynx BALONEY!
4 Matching Nose Nose hairs Mucous membrane Cilia covering membrane (Upper Respiratory Tract)Produces mucous to provide warm moisture to the air entering the body Where air enters & leaves respiratory system Filters particles & push them to pharynx Trap dirt, dust & bacteria that live on themNose Nose hairs Mucous membrane Cilia covering membrane
5 Matching (cont.)Sinuses Nasopharynx Oropharynx LaryngopharynxPassageway for air, drains naval cavities Air spaces in skull to reduce weight Receives objects from mouth Lower part of throat
6 Fill in the Blank (Lower Respiratory Tract) Flexibility & protection of larynx: thyroid cartilage. Opening through which air passes: glottis. Flap of tissue that covers your glottis when you swallow & blocks food from getting into your larynx: epiglottis. Vibrate to produce sound: vocal cords. Passageway for air into lungs, cilia catch impurities: trachea. WORD BANK: mucous membrane, epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, nasopharynx, trachea, glottis, vocal cords
7 Fill in the Blank (cont.) Branched airways leading from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs in lungs: bronchial tree. Enters lungs: bronchi. Smaller branches off of bronchi: bronchioles. Smallest parts of respiratory system, involved in gas exchange, surrounded by capillaries: alveoli. Encase the lungs, involved in regulating pressure in lungs: Pleural membranes. WORD BANK: alveoli, bronchi, epiglottis, bronchial tree, pleural membranes, mucous membranes, bronchioles
9 LEARNING TARGET:Collect & analyze data regarding the warming function of the nasal passageways. (r)
10 Multiple Choice/T or B TRUTH OR BALONEY?! Why are nasal passageways better at heating the inhaled air than the mouth?a) mucous membranes around the nasal chonchaeb) shorter distance to the lungsc) the nostrils are smaller openingsd) because they areTRUTH OR BALONEY?!Inhaling colder air through the mouth is good for the lungs.can irritateBALONEY!
11 Evaluate Data According to the class data, the nasal passageways /mouth heat(s) the air better.
12 Describe the process of ventilation. (k) LEARNING TARGET:Describe the process of ventilation. (k)
13 Multiple ChoiceThe definition of ventilation is.. a) the vital capacity plus the residual volume b) the intensity of breathing c) movement of air into and out of lungs d) running around in circles Another name for ventilation is.. a) chewing b) breathing c) sleeping d) running
14 Truth or Baloney!The membranes that surround the lungs are the pleural, parietal, and visceral membrane. TRUE! The lungs explode if its membranes are punctured. collapse BALONEY!
15 Process of Inhalation1. Contraction of external intercostal muscles pulls ribs upward and outward. 2. Diaphragm contracts. 3. Volume of thoracic cavity increases. 4. Pressure in pleural cavity decreases. 5. Lungs inflate as air rushes in. WORD BANK: INCREASES, DECREASES, ELASTIC, DEFLATE, DIAPHRAGM, INFLATE, INTERCOSTAL
16 Process of Exhalation1. Muscles of inhalation relax due to elastic recoil. 2. Volume of thoracic cavity decreases. 3. Pressure in pleural cavity increases. 4. Lungs deflate. WORD BANK: DECREASES, INCREASES, INFLATE, ELASTIC RECOIL, DEFLATE, DIAPHRAGM
17 Intercostal or Abdominal? Fill in the BlankIntercostal or Abdominal?The ribs are raised by the contraction of the intercostalmuscles, which increases the size of thoracic cavity.Muscles that help to force out more than the normal volumeof air by pulling the ribs downward & inward include theintercostal muscles.The diaphragm can be forced to move higher than normal bythe contraction of the abdominal muscles.
18 Multiple ChoiceWhich of the following is false regarding surfactant? a) is a phospholipid b) reduces elastic recoil c) warming function of nasal passageway d) prevents complete deflation of our lungs
19 Determine how certain factors affect breathing rate. (r) LEARNING TARGET:Determine how certain factors affect breathing rate. (r)
20 MatchingRespiratory areas of the brain (2) Chemical Levels Emotional State Physical FitnessControl rate of respiratory pattern Controls breathing & heart rate Dependent on endurance/stamina Controls autonomic functions Provide feedback for control of breathing**You will be given a situation and you will need to explain what the respiratory response will be!
21 Define terms associated with lung volumes and capacities. (k) LEARNING TARGET:Define terms associated with lung volumes and capacities. (k)
22 Matching Tidal Volume Inspiratory Reserve Volume Expiratory Reserve The additional volume of air that can be inhaled with maximum effort after a normal inspiration The volume of air breathed in and out without conscious effort The additional volume of air that can be forcible exhaled after normal exhalationTidal Volume Inspiratory Reserve Volume Expiratory Reserve
23 Matching Vital Capacity Total Capacity Residual Volume The volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation: VC = TV + IRV + ERV The vital capacity plus the residual volume: = VC + RVVital Capacity Total Capacity Residual Volume
24 LEARNING TARGET:Use a spirometer to obtain lung volumes and capacities and interpret the results. (s)
26 Calculating Using Data Using the data, calculate the vital capacity. VC = TV + IRV + ERV Using the data, calculate the total lung capacity. TLC = VC + RV
27 Multiple ChoiceWhy are breathing capacities measured? a) to see how warm the air we breathe is b) because it’s required by Mrs. Cerletty c) to track progress of diseases d) to find out what we ate for lunch Which of the following factors may affect a person’s VC? a) smoking b) body type c) exercise d) all of the above may affect a person’s VC
28 Define each step of the breathing cycle. (k) LEARNING TARGET:Define each step of the breathing cycle. (k)
29 MatchingMovement of gases through the bloodstream Inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide (breathing) Gas exchange occurring between blood and cells Gas exchange between the alveoli and the bloodVentilation External Respiration Transportation Internal Respiration
30 LEARNING TARGET: Interpret diagrams related to the breathing cycle. (r)
31 Multiple ChoiceThe definition of partial pressure is.. a) the pressure one gas produces in a mixture of gases b) the pressure half the gases produce in a mixture c) the pressure all the gases produce in a mixture d) a mixture of gases What causes gases to move from the alveoli to the capillaries or capillaries to alveoli? a) an abundance of pressure b) not enough pressure c) because our body knows to do that d) differences in partial pressure
32 DiagramGiven partial pressure data, show the proper movement of gases at the site of alveoli.
33 Truth or Baloney!Alveoli are the site of gas exchange. TRUE! The protein that transports oxygen to the cells is carbohydrates. hemoglobin BALONEY!
34 Multiple ChoiceWhat is the main function of gas exchange? a) to maintain a steady level of CO2 in the bloodstream b) moisturize the air c) turn blue blood to red blood d) to keep our feet healthy How is CO2 transported throughout the body? a) bound to hemoglobin b) dissolved in plasma c) bicarbonate d) all of the above are correct
35 Relate the breathing cycle to everyday situations. (r) LEARNING TARGET:Relate the breathing cycle to everyday situations. (r)
36 Matching Hyperventilation Hypoventilation Exposure to carbon monoxide SmokingExerciseRespiratory illnessesTraveling from low to high altitude locations
37 Analyze data related to breathing cycles. (s) LEARNING TARGET:Analyze data related to breathing cycles. (s)
38 Truth or BaloneyWhen you breathe normally, you are inhaling more O2. TRUE! O2 is the most responsible gas for stimulating increases & decreases in the breathing cycle. BALONEY! CO2 CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER! During exercise, CO2 production increases/decreases.
39 Fill in the BlankWhen a person hyperventilates in fresh air, his CO2 content decreases. A decrease in CO2 is followed by a decrease in the rate of respiration. The supply of blood CO2 during hypoventilation into a paper bag increases. An increase in blood CO2 content is followed by an increase in the rate of respiration. WORD BANK: Increase, decrease, increases, decreases
40 TRY NOT TO HYPERVENTILATE! GOODLUCK ON YOUR TEST!TRY NOT TO HYPERVENTILATE!