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Chapter 17 Respiratory System.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Respiratory System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Respiratory System

2 Respiratory System Functions
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide Production of sound

3 Respiration External respiration Internal respiration
Cellular respiration or oxidation

4 Respiratory Organs and Structures
Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi

5 Respiratory Organs and Structures
Bronchioles Alveoli Lungs Pleura Mediastinum

6 Respiratory Organs and Structures

7 The Nasal Cavity Anterior nares or nostrils Nasal septum
Turbinates or nasal conchae bones Cilia Olfactory nerve Sinuses

8 The Pharynx Also called the throat Common passageway for food and air
Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Epiglottis

9 The Larynx Also called voice box Nine fibrocartilaginous plates
Mucous membrane Glottis

10 The Trachea Also called windpipe Hyaline cartilage
Mucous membrane and ciliated epithelium Damage caused by smoking

11 The Bronchi and the Bronchioles
Right and left bronchus Ciliated epithelium Hyaline cartilage Bronchi subdivide into bronchioles Alveolar sacs (alveoli)

12 The Alveoli Sacs of single layer epithelial tissue
Surrounded by bed of capillaries Surfactant Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

13 The Lungs Separated by the mediastinum and the heart
Apex is top of each lung; broad lower part is base Base rests over the diaphragm Right lung has three lobes; left lung has two lobes

14 The Pleura A thin, moist, slippery membrane of tough endothelial cells that covers lungs Each lung encased in double-walled sac Pleurisy Pleural fluid Thoracentesis Pneumothorax

15 The Mediastinum Also called the interpleural space
Located between the lungs Contains the thoracic viscera

16 Mechanics of Breathing
Pulmonary ventilation is called breathing Due to changes in pressure which occur within the chest cavity Variation in pressure caused by cellular respiration and mechanical breathing movements

17 The Breathing Process Inhalation/inspiration Exhalation/expiration
Respiratory movements and frequency of respiration

18 Control of Breathing Neural factors Chemical factors

19 Lung Capacity and Volume
Tidal volume Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) Vital lung capacity

20 Lung Capacity and Volume
Residual volume Functional residual capacity Total lung capacity

21 Types of Respiration Apnea Dyspnea Eupnea Hyperpnea

22 Types of Respiration Orthopnea Tachypnea Hyperventilation

23 Animation – Respiration
Click Here to play Respiration animation

24 Effects of Aging Lung tissue loses elasticity
Rib cage becomes less flexible Muscle strength decreases Functioning alveoli decrease

25 Disorders Infectious Causes
Common cold Pharyngitis Laryngitis Sinusitis Bronchitis and chronic bronchitis

26 Disorders Infectious Causes
Influenza (flu) Pneumonia Tuberculosis (TB) Diphtheria Pertussis (whooping cough)

27 Disorders Infectious Causes
Anthrax Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

28 Disorders Noninfectious Causes
Rhinitis Asthma Athelectasis Asbestosis Silicosis Nasal polyps

29 Disorders Noninfectious Causes
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Cancer of the lungs Cancer of the larynx Pulmonary embolism Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

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