Presentation on theme: "BANANA MATCHING Establishment of Supply Network for Saba/Cardaba."— Presentation transcript:
BANANA MATCHING Establishment of Supply Network for Saba/Cardaba
SUPPLY GAP GREAT IRONY TOO MANY IDLE LANDS TOO MANY IDLE MANPOWER TECHNOLOGY IS AVAILABLE MANY INVESTORS/ LOANS AVAILABLE NO SUPPLY OF BANANA
SUPPLY GAP INUBOS MO SAGING KO? BANANA Market 66% LOCAL consumption 34% EXPORTED MULTIPLE USES chips, catsup, wine, vinegar, flour, puree, and other cooked food and feed preparations
OPERATION GAP Diseases, particularly bunchy-top and mosaic. Lack of transport system, post harvest facilities, market information, as well as competition from other countries (INFRASTRUCTURE). Unreliability of quality raw materials supply experienced by the banana chip industry (QUALITY). High and still increasing production cost.
CDBN (SeedBin) Supply Network Solution MARKET ACCESS Aligns production based on demand Collaborative Matching: LAND and LABOR (L2) Channel FUNDS through “Controlled Microfinancing (CMF) Model” Evaluates Project Progress *Be part of BANANA MATCHING, Contact Ms. ANNE CHING,
IDEAL CONDITIONS FOR BANANA GROWING SOIL REQUIREMENT Deep, friable, rich in organic matter with complete nutrient and mineral elements. Have adequate moisture year round and well drained. Soil texture may be 40% clay, 75% silt or 85 % loam. Soil pH ranges from 6 to 7 while 6.5 would be ideal. Topography: Flat to rolling lands up to 45 degrees gradient.
CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT It needs tropical climate, plenty of sunlight to fully fruit. Shaded areas like under the coconut; may be tolerated by some varieties, but open fields, with abundant sunlight is required for higher productivity. Temperature range of 22 to 31 degrees centigrade. Elevation: from sea level to 1,000 meters above. Air movement should be free to reduce pest and disease harboring in the plantation, but sensitive to strong winds.
LAND PREPARATION and PLANTING After determining the site for banana planting, prepare the planting site. Banana roots are long but soft and tender. They will need soft, friable and easy to work on for nutrient root absorption and stable anchorage so plant does not fall down. Clear the area of trees, shrubs and weeds. Remove all stumps and rocks or any material that will hinder plant growth or field operations. If possible deep plow and break subsoil if there is a hard pan. Then harrow or level and grade the surface. For flat lands, dig drainage canals every two rows.
LAND PREPARATION and PLANTING Lay out the rows and stake the hills: 2.0 x 2.5 meters or 3 x 3 meters for small varieties (amas, lakatan and latundan) and 4.0 x 5.0 meters for big varieties (saba and cardaba). Dig one cubic feet or deeper (50 diameter x 30 cm deep) at the planting site, and place 1 kilo organic and 100 grams complete fertilizer at the bottom then cover with 4 to 6 inches of fertile top soil. Sterilize holes by burning husk or rice hull in hole. Planting materials: Corms, Sucker, Tissue culture and Bull- head.
PREPARATION OF PLANTING MATERIALS Suckers (Sword or maiden leaf) Suckers must be 11 to 20 cm in diameter and weigh 2.3 to 2.7 kilos. Remove the leaves, except the two youngest. Cut back 10 cm above the rhizomes for maiden leaf suckers.
PREPARATION OF PLANTING MATERIALS Corms Obtain corms from healthy large suckers that have not fruited yet, Use corms with cut tops 10 to 15 cm in diameter, with a minimum of one good bud. Deep the corm in a solution containing fungicide (Lime sulfur) and insecticide plus spreader sticker preferably Aloe Vera extract. After treating 60 corms, add 1/3 of the chemical mixture and level the solution back to 20liter water. Use hand gloves and mask when dipping corms. Deep the corms for 5 to 10 minutes and air-dry under the shade.
Use of Eyebuds as Planting Materials The use of corms and suckers as planting materials is simple and with high germination and survival. However, these materials are bulky and costly in terms of labor and transport. Dividing the corm into seedpieces with two eyebuds each increases the number of planting materials. Dividing further the seedpieces into one eyebud each makes them equally appropriate planting materials. The eyebuds have germination and survival rate similar to those of the seedpieces and have advantage of being less bulky, thereby reducing hauling and freight costs.
PLANTING DISTANCE AND GROSS ESTIMATED INCOME Saba Cardaba Planting Distance in Meters 4x5 5x5 No. of Hills per Hectare Average Weight per Bunch 20 Farm Gate Price Gross Sales Amount 40,000 32,000 64,000 Cost of Production Php15/Bunch 7,500 6,000 Gross Profit 32,500 26,000 58,000
Recommended distance: Saba and Cardaba 5 x 5 meters 400 per ha.
PLANTING PROCEDURE Pour water in the hole to almost full. Set the planting material. Plant either the whole corm or cut the corm into pieces with each piece/bit having at least one viable bud. Plant suckers or corms erect in the hole to about 30 cm deep. Cover with topsoil and press on all sides to firm up. Replant the ungerminated plant materials 3-4 weeks after planting.
FERTILIZATION Have the soil analyzed to determine nutrient availability and deficiency. Leaf analysis would be a better check. Natural organic fertilizers and banana left to nature have been producing, but fertilizing them with combination of organic and chemical fertilizers will increase their yield.
General fertilizer rate recommendation per hectare per year: Chemical fertilizer application: Per Hill Per Hectare Nitrogen (N) 0.30 – 0.50 k 300 to 500 kilos Phosphorous (P) k 25 to 50 kilos Potassium (K2O) 0.35 – 0.60 k 350 to 600 kilos Trace minerals – 0.01 k 5 to 10 kilos Organic fertilizer k 2 to 5 tons
TIME OF FERTILIZATION Basal application, before planting of organic and chemical fertilizer. Every tree months for chemical fertilizer. Once or twice a year for organic fertilizer. Work in the fertilizer into the soil by cultivating or forking around the hills sof banana 30 to 50 centimeters from the base of the corm. Fertilize the plant 0.25 kg Urea (46-0-0) plus 0.25 kg Muriate of Potash (0-0-60) every 3 months in each mat to insure proper growth of banana plants (or based on leaf or soil analysis). Apply fertilizer 30 to 60 c from the pseudostem in a ring or band application. Then cover fertilizer with soil. On slopes, fertilizer must be forked in on the upper side of the plant.
PRUNING The removal of old leaves and cutting off of diseased portion is a continuing pruning activity as part of sanitation and disease spread prevention. Remove dry leaf sheathes and leaves using a pruning knife attached to a long pole. Stripping of infected and removal of nonfunctional leaves. This reduces inoculum source of leaf diseases like Sigatoka. Maintain 10 to 12 leaves before or during flowering. Pseudostem and Mat Sanitation. Remove dead and dried leaf sheathes. Debell bunches immediately after false hand appearance.
THINING The removal of unwanted suckers by digging, rouging and cutting/pruning at the ground level or scooping out the growing point with a special roughing knife that scoops out the growing point. Treat the growing point with petroleum to control growth. Maintain only 1 to 2 suckers per mother plant. Suckers less than 1 meter high should be removed, unless you intend to use them as planting material.
WEEDING and CULTIVATION Manual or mechanical weeding and cultivation are preferred and recommended practice. This will help aerate and loosen the soil and remove noxious weeds. It will also enhance biological activity. The use of chemical herbicide is being resorted to by big corporate plantations because of limited labor supply and farm machinery. These chemicals affect the biological life of the soil as they do not only kill weeds but also the beneficial fungi and bacteria living in the soil. Small landowners with less than 10 hectares could easily get enough labor force to do manual weeding and cultivation.
FLOWER AND FRUIT MANAGEMENT Propping: When banana hills are limited to 2 to 3 suckers with the mother plant and other suckers are removed, its anchorage is weaken, and the plant when it fruits is too heavy and tends to fall down. Propping banana stems with poles or tying them up to cables; are practiced by big banana plantations. Planting bamboo groves as pole supply is recommended along the edges of banana farms.
FLOWER AND FRUIT MANAGEMENT Bunch spraying: Periodic spraying of bunches to protect them against pests and diseases is done for susceptible varieties like Lacatan and Cavaendish varieties. Cardava and Bungulan appear to by more tolerant to pest and diseases.
FLOWER AND FRUIT MANAGEMENT Deflowering: This is the removal of the heart immediately at the emergence of the last set of fingers (hands) will help prevent infection and food nutrients will be concentrated to the development of the fruits.
FLOWER AND FRUIT MANAGEMENT Debudding / Debelling: The removal of unneeded buds would also help channel all food nutrients to the fruit bunch.
FLOWER AND FRUIT MANAGEMENT Bagging: Many commercial varieties are bagged to prevent the insect pests from laying eggs on them. It also keeps them clean and attractive for the market.
FLOWER AND FRUIT MANAGEMENT Ribboning, tagging or date marking: From the removal of flower after the last fingers emerge will commence the period and determine the date of full maturity and harvest based on the variety, usually 100 to 120 days.
HARVESTING Maturity indices: 1. The plant has six or less functional leaves. 2. Fruits are full, plump, round and light green. 3. Angles in the fingers are rounded. 4. Leaves turn yellow. SABA / CARDABA 16 – 18 weeks or120 days Harvest not earlier than 112 hanging days.
HARVESTING Angularity of individual fingers: Observe the curve angle and distancing of the fingers from one another. Fruit diameter: Observe the enlargement of the fruit diameter. As it matures, it becomes full and bigger. Pulp color: Mature fruits turn pale yellow pulp in color. Locule formation: Spots and fungal development on the skin of maturing fruits appear as it becomes less acidic and tart.
HARVESTING PROCEDURE Remove the leaves and props Make a cut at he middle of the pseudostem and pull the bunch slowly to the shoulder of the backer/carrier. Cut the peduncle and spray the butt end with Alum (Aluminum sulfate) to prevent staining of the fruits. Cut the top of the pseudostem leaving 2 to 3 meters stalk. The backer carries the bunch to the packing area. Spray the bunch with water to remove field heat.