Presentation on theme: "Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation."— Presentation transcript:
Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation
Crop productivity is determined by how soil is managed 1. Good land management is a combination of tillage, cropping systems, and soil treatments. 2. Tillage is the mechanical handling of soil to provide a favorable environment for plant growth 3.Soil Moisture can affect effectiveness of tillage systems
Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Terms that relate to Tillage A. Hardpans: Hardened layers of soil 1. Can cause water penetration problems 2. Can be broken up by chisels or soil savers to improve water drainage and penetration B. Crusts: Surface layers of soil that are harder and more compact than soil located below them 1. Slow water penetration and drainage 2. Can be broke to allow seeds to emerge
Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Terms that relate to Tillage A.Crop Residue: Portion of crop plants remaining after harvest 1. Leaves, stems, stubble, straw, chaff, and Roots 2. Adds Organic matter content of soil
Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Cultivation is the tillage between seedlings emergence and crop harvest Advantages of Cultivation: 1. Weed Control 2. Temporarily improve water infiltration, soil aeration, conservation of soil moisture, loosen compacted soils, and aid in insect control
Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Cultivation is the tillage between seedlings emergence and crop harvest Disadvantages of Cultivation: 1. Loss of organic matter 2. Destruction of plant roots
Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Major Objectives of Tillage are to improve soil tilth, provide weed control, and manage crop residue A. Management of crop residue can be achieved by chopping/cutting and mixing the crop residues into the soil profile. B.Tillage for weed control is effective and removes weeds that would compete for water, nutrients, and space
Other Objectives of Tillage C.Tillage to improve soil tilth is important in order to provide a uniform seedbed for planting depth control D. Soil Aeration to improve oxygen supply E. Moisture Management F. Increase insect control by burying crop residue
Other Objectives of Tillage G. Erosion Control 1. Crop residues decrease soil erosion 2. Roughened soil surface decreases soil erosion
Different Tillage Equipment Tillage is done for several different purposes and with a variety of equipment A. The plow may be used in the first step of seedbed preparation. It inverts the soil and covers crop residues. B.Disks are used to reduce clod size by using shearing and pressure. It smooths and levels the soil and destroys small weeds.
Different Tillage Equipment C. The harrow function is to further reduce the size of the soil clod. It also can be used to smooth and level the soil. D.A Chisel plow is a type of plow that uses a long shank to turn ground over and break up hard pans.
Seedbed Preparation Good seedbed preparation is essential for successful field and garden sowing A. A seedbed should have a loose, but fine physical texture that gives close contact between the soil and the seed B. This will allow soil moisture to be supplied continually to the seed C.It will allow adequate aeration without drying too rapidly
Depth of Planting Depth of planting is critical in that it will determine the rate of emergence and the density of the stand 1. If the seed is planted too shallow it may dry too rapidly 2. If it is planted too deep, emergence of the seed will be delayed or may not emerge at all 3.Depth of planting is determined by the kind and size of the seed, the condition of the seedbed, and the environment at planting time
Depth of Planting Continued 4. A rule of thumb is to plant seeds to a depth of “FOUR TIMES ITS AVERAGE DIAMETER” 5.Remember that the proper environment for seed germination requires, available moisture, proper temperature, a supply of oxygen and (sometimes) light