2Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Crop productivity is determined by how soil is managedGood land management is a combination of tillage, cropping systems, and soil treatments.Tillage is the mechanical handling of soil to provide a favorable environment for plant growth3. Soil Moisture can affect effectiveness of tillage systems
3Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Terms that relate to TillageHardpans: Hardened layers of soil1. Can cause water penetration problems2. Can be broken up by chisels or soil saversto improve water drainage and penetrationCrusts: Surface layers of soil that are harder and more compact than soil located below them1. Slow water penetration and drainage2. Can be broke to allow seeds to emerge
4Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Terms that relate to TillageA. Crop Residue: Portion of crop plants remainingafter harvest1. Leaves, stems, stubble, straw, chaff, andRoots2. Adds Organic matter content of soil
5Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Cultivation is the tillage between seedlings emergence and crop harvestAdvantages of Cultivation:1. Weed Control2. Temporarily improve water infiltration, soil aeration, conservation of soil moisture, loosen compacted soils, and aid in insect control
6Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Cultivation is the tillage between seedlings emergence and crop harvestDisadvantages of Cultivation:Loss of organic matterDestruction of plant roots
7Soil Tillage, Land Preparation, and Conservation Major Objectives of Tillage are to improve soil tilth, provide weed control, and manage crop residueManagement of crop residue can be achieved by chopping/cutting and mixing the crop residues into the soil profile.B. Tillage for weed control is effective and removes weeds that would compete for water, nutrients, and space
8Other Objectives of Tillage C. Tillage to improve soil tilth is important in orderto provide a uniform seedbed for planting depth controlSoil Aeration to improve oxygen supplyMoisture ManagementIncrease insect control by burying crop residue
10Different Tillage Equipment Tillage is done for several different purposes and with a variety of equipmentThe plow may be used in the first step of seedbed preparation. It inverts the soil and covers crop residues.B. Disks are used to reduce clod size by using shearing and pressure. It smooths and levels the soil and destroys small weeds.
11Different Tillage Equipment The harrow function is to further reduce the size of the soil clod. It also can be used to smooth and level the soil.D. A Chisel plow is a type of plow that uses a long shank to turn ground over and break up hard pans.
12Seedbed PreparationGood seedbed preparation is essential for successful field and garden sowingA seedbed should have a loose, but fine physical texture that gives close contact between the soil and the seedThis will allow soil moisture to be supplied continually to the seedC. It will allow adequate aeration without drying too rapidly
13Depth of PlantingDepth of planting is critical in that it will determine the rate of emergence and the density of the standIf the seed is planted too shallow it may dry too rapidlyIf it is planted too deep, emergence of the seed will be delayed or may not emerge at all3. Depth of planting is determined by the kind and size of the seed, the condition of the seedbed, and the environment at planting time
14Depth of Planting Continued A rule of thumb is to plant seeds to a depth of “FOUR TIMES ITS AVERAGE DIAMETER”5. Remember that the proper environment for seed germination requires, available moisture, proper temperature, a supply of oxygen and (sometimes) light