Presentation on theme: "CROP PLANTING RICE PLANTING SEEDING METHOD LECTURE 10.3 >> CROP PLANTING ERT 453 – DESIGN OF MACHINE SYSTEM IN BIOSYSTEMS By: Munira Mohamed Nazari."— Presentation transcript:
CROP PLANTING RICE PLANTING SEEDING METHOD LECTURE 10.3 >> CROP PLANTING ERT 453 – DESIGN OF MACHINE SYSTEM IN BIOSYSTEMS By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING INTRODUCTION In this lesson, we will focus first on direct seeding rice with dry land preparation, then on direct seeding on wet land. By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING dry land How is direct seeding on dry land done? Dry direct seeding can be done by: 1. broadcasting (sowing seed by scattering it) 2. drilling 3. dibbling In rain fed and deep water ecosystems, farmers often sow onto a dry soil surface and then incorporated the seed either by ploughing or by harrowing. Avoid incorporating the seed too deeply into clay soils or where surface sealing is a problem. In some deepwater rice areas, the seed is not incorporated after broadcasting. Germination occurs following rain or floods. By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING To get good plant establishment, the farmer should check the seed quality, soil tilth, amount of seed, and expected availability of water. The target number of plants to be established ranges from 100 to 150 plants per square meter. Some plant rearrangement (transplanting) might be needed after establishment to even up plant stands. By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING 1. Broadcasting You can broadcast 80 to 100 kilograms of seeds per hectare evenly on the field or in furrows in a 1 hectare field. Make shallow furrows by passing a furrower along the prepared field. After broadcasting, cover the seeds using a spike-tooth harrow. Broadcasting without furrows Broadcasting with furrows By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING 2. Drilling Another technique is drilling 80 to 100 kilograms of seed per hectare by hand on prepared furrows, or by mechanical seed drillers. A benefit of drill seeding is that fertilizer can be applied at the same time as the seed. Also manual weeding is easier in machine-drilled crops than in broadcast crops. In Asia, mechanical planting of dry seed is seldom practised, but in Australia and the United States, seed is often placed by a seed drill into both dry and moist soil and then irrigated. A smooth, level seedbed is necessary to ensure that seeds are not planted at depths greater than 10 to 15 mm. By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING Drilling by hand Drilling by driller By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING 3. Dibbling (hill planting) The third technique is dibbling, or hill planting. This is usually practiced along mountain slopes or where plowing and harrowing are difficult. Use a long wood or bamboo pole with a metal scoop attached at the end for digging holes. Then drop the seeds into the holes and cover them with soil. Dibbling on mountain slopes By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING wet land How is direct seeding on wet land done? The method of wet direct seeding is often used in irrigated areas and can be done by: 1. broadcasting, or 2. drilling seeds into the mud with a drum seeder. By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING 1. Broadcasting Seeds can be broadcast onto recently drained, well- puddled seedbeds or into shallow standing water in the fields. If water in the fields is muddy following the last working, the field is allowed to dry for a time period of at least 24 hours (preferably 48 hours) before broadcasting commences. If water is drained from the fields after broadcasting, it is re-introduced 10 to 15 days after seeding. You need to broadcast 80 to 100 kilograms of pre- germinated seeds per hectare. By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING 2. Drilling with a drum seeder The manually operated drum seeder is a fast planting technique that can be used for wet seeding. It operates best on a seedbed that is very level, smooth and wet. A drum seeder reduces labor requirements By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING A problem of the drum seeder is that uneven seeding may occur: many seeds are dropped when the operator stops, and then no seeds are dropped until the seeder has moved forward for a small distance. This uneven seeding leads to an uneven plant stand and follow-up transplanting may be required. The newest kinds of drum seeders perform better. The seed holes of the drum seeder By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING advantagesdisadvantages What are the advantages and disadvantages of direct seeding? There are 2 advantages to using direct seeding: 1. It requires less labor. You do not have to prepare a nursery, care for it, and pull the seedlings. 2. Direct-seeded plants mature 7 to 10 days earlier than transplanted rice. They are not subjected to stress like being pulled from the soil of the nursery and do not need to reproduce fine rootlets. By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
RICE PLANTING advantagesdisadvantages What are the advantages and disadvantages of direct seeding? There are 4 disadvantages to using direct seeding: 1. In direct seeding, the seeds are exposed to birds, rats, and snails. 2. There is greater crop-weed competition because rice plants and weeds are of similar age. 3. Plants tend to lodge more because there is less root anchorage. 4. More seeds are required:80 to 100 kilograms per hectare compared with 35 to 65 kilograms per hectare with transplanting. By: Munira Mohamed Nazari
DIFFERENTIATE Advantages of rice planting between direct seeding and transplanting method. Disadvantage of rice planting between direct seeding and transplanting method.
EVALUATE There are two techniques of rice planting in wet land, which are broadcasting and drilling seeds into the mud with a drum seeder. Evaluate these two techniques.
ANALYZE A seed drill is a sowing device that precisely positions seeds in the soil and then covers them. Analyze the benefits of using the above mechanism.
Advantages of puddling: Reduces soil permeability Preserves aquatic, anaerobic conditions Controls weeds, improves water and nutrient availability Facilitates transplanting Disadvantages of puddling: Destroys soil aggregates Breaks capillary pores Disperses fine clay particles Lowers soil strength in the puddled layer Plough pan (compacted layer) resists root penetration of following crop Can cause water logging Forms large clods in finer textured soils preventing seed-soil contact