Leaves between 15-30% residue cover on the soil This residue protects the soil from erosion Accomplished with specialized equipment that gently tills the soil
Leaves a minimum of 30% of crop residue on soil surface Greatly reduces soil erosion Increases organic matter Reduces number of passes in field= less fuel, less compaction, less time in field Conserves soil moisture Requires specialized heavy-duty equipment to “break” through crop residue and soil in one pass.
Planting of crops directly into residue that either hasn’t been tilled at all (no-till) or has been tilled only in narrow strips with the rest of the field left untilled (strip-till).
Ridge-till involves planting row crops on permanent ridges about 4-6 inches high. The previous crop’s residue is cleared off ridge-tops into adjacent furrows to make way for the new crop being planted on ridges. Maintaining the ridges is essential and requires modified or specialized equipment
Mulch-till is any other reduced tillage system that leaves at least one third of the soil surface covered with crop residue
Leaves less than 15% crop residue cover by completely inverting the top 12” of soil. Includes moldboard plowing, 2-3 secondary tillage steps and one or more primary tillage steps. This system is adapted to very intensively cropped soils which are usually irrigated, fairly level, and produce 2-3 crops per year.
Soil Type: compaction, erosion Water and Wind Erosion Climate: Soil temps, damaging weather Water Conservation: water availability, conserving soil moisture Irrigation Method Crop Type Soil Fertility management: Organic matter, nutrient availability Weed Pressure Disease management Insect Management Cost: Fuel, Labor, Equipment
Accomplished with laser planes.1%-.3% for most irrigated crops Involves cutting and filling: scraping soil off high spots and filling in low spots Laser Leveling improves efficiency of irrigation (flood and sprinkler) Must be done in dry soil, free of vegetation
Test for primary plant food elements: N, P, K Test EC and Ph Test for other elements/micronutrients With heavy cutting and filling, there will be irregularities where large layers of soil were removed or filled.
Essential element for building material in the plant. Promotes growth, gives plants a green color, improves quality of leaf crops, and increases protein content in all crops. Very mobile/ easily leached Deficiency symptoms: Stunted growth pale yellowish color “firing” of leaf tips and margins, beginning at bottom of plant Low protein content
Essential to all plant growth, active ingredient of protoplasm. Stimulates early growth and root formation accelerates maturity, promotes seed production, contributes to general hardiness of the plant Not very mobile in soil Deficiency Symptoms: Small growth, especially root development Spindly stalk Delayed maturity Purplish foliage Lack of, or poor fruit and seed development
Not much is known about the function of potassium in plants, but like the other primary nutrients, it is essential to photosynthesis. It enhances the plants ability to resist disease, cold and other adverse conditions and it functions in the process where starches and sugars and made from carbon dioxide and water. Deficiency Symptoms: Plant grows slowly Margins of leaves develop a “scorched effect” starting on older leaves. Stalk is weak and plants “lodge” easily Seed or Fruit is shriveled Plants natural resistance to disease is reduced