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Chapter 6 Building Communities in the Early Republic From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 Black Population Census of 1790
African Americans in Demographic Perspective The Mid-Atlantic States and New England Gradual abolition laws Slavery persisted; by eve of Civil War there were no slaves in the North Slavery did not end in Delaware until after Civil War New England ahead of other regions in abolition of slavery Slavery persisted west of the southern Appalachians © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
African Americans in Demographic Perspective Development of Black Communities Timing and character of abolition important in building of black communities Developed rapidly in cities, especially in the North Economic discrimination and social ostracism remained African Americans gravitated to East Coast cities Also time of white migration Occupational opportunity varied from place to place In Boston, blacks compressed to lower economic ranks © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
African Americans in Demographic Perspective Black Migration to Boston Early abolition in Massachusetts spurred black migration to Boston In 1788, Massachusetts legislature passed measure to prevent black in-migration from other states Blacks in Philadelphia Early rise in black community attributed to fact Pennsylvania first state to pass emancipation law Created black urban institutions, although majority of jobs remained unskilled © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
African Americans in Demographic Perspective New York City’s Black Community Slavery legal until 1799; black community remained heavily enslaved Free population grew larger during this time Many coming from surrounding countryside and the Upper South Mostly performed unskilled labor; some were artisans © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
Building Community Institutions Institutions cornerstones of black communities Emerged as result of blacks’ desire to participate in shared cultural traditions Independent Black Churches Organized in both North and South First Great Awakening Religious revivals attracting blacks to evangelical antislavery Methodists and Baptists © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
Building Community Institutions Richard Allen and Absalom Jones Founders of African Free Society Decided to break away from St. George’s Methodist Episcopal Church after being directed to sit in balcony under a new segregated seating policy The African Methodist Episcopal Church Methodist general council attempted to control Allen’s new church Pennsylvania Supreme Court decision led way for this first black-led denomination AME grew, with branches as far as Pittsburgh and Charleston © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
Building Community Institutions Separate Black Institutions Community associations and institutions created urban black leadership class Based on common values Boston School Committee’s 1812 decision to subsidize black schools root of Boston’s segregated school system © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
Building Community Institutions White Philanthropy Enhanced institution building Black and White Leadership Conflicts Struggled over differences, control © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
Blacks and American Party Politics Disfranchisement of Blacks State legislatures opened up voting for white men by abolishing property restrictions, but many of the statutes disfranchised black men Free-black property holders found it increasingly more difficult to vote Black vote was an issue in the increasing political partisanship of 1790s Federalists more likely to oppose slavery, be sympathetic to role of blacks as citizens © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
Blacks and American Party Politics The Haitian Revolution After long struggle, Haiti became the world’s first black republic American politics divided over the Revolution Federalists tended to support © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Toussaint Louverture
The Louisiana Purchase Federalists and Free Blacks Free-black voters preferred Federalists because of prominence in early antislavery societies Not all Federalists were critical of slavery Southern Federalists still supported slavery Party’s northern base committed to growth of cities, manufacturing, and maritime trades Opened jobs for urbanized free-black population Elections contentious Federalists courted blacks in Boston to counterbalance Democratic Republican Irish immigrants Blacks intimidated in polling places © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
Black Writing and Art in the New Nation Blacks adopted various literary forms to define position in relation to dominant white society Linked African American communities with others of African descent in Atlantic world Pamphlet Literature Usually published orations; countered racist depictions of blacks in dominant society’s print media Commemorations of end of slave trade; accompanied annual celebrations © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
Black Writing and Art in the New Nation Appeals to Readers Success of pamphlet as vehicle of social transformation depended on appeal to white readers Black leaders defended claims for equal citizenship; Africa as center of black heritage became a theme © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
Black Writing and Art in the New Nation The Jones and Allen Pamphlet First blacks to receive a copyright for pamphlet; defended black communities’ behavior during 1793 yellow fever epidemic Pamphleteers attempted to replace negative racial images with group images of respectability; also engaged in internal community policing © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
Black Writing and Art in the New Nation The Spiritual Autobiography Jupiter Hammon; Olaudah Equiano Banneker’s Almanacs Most accomplished black man of letters in early U.S. Issued almanacs; appealed for more liberal attitude toward blacks Appointed to lay out streets of Washington, DC The Painter Joshua Johnston First documented professional black painter © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
The War of 1812 Black Military Service During War of 1812, northern black communities pledged allegiance to U.S. government New York passed act for recruitment of two black regiments Promised same pay as white soldiers; freedom to slaves who enlisted with permission of master Vigilance Committee in Philadelphia called on black leaders to mobilize community More than 2,500 blacks helped to erect defenses © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19
The War of 1812 Gallant Service Soldiers of color instrumental in victory at the Battle of New Orleans Praised by Jackson for their gallantry Also fought on British side British promised freedom to fugitive slaves © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 The Battle of New Orleans
Black Colonization Colonization Efforts Black settlement outside U.S. appealed to different groups for different reasons Escaped slaves looking for place to live free Black religious leaders wanted to go back to Africa for missionary purposes Slavery proponents wanted removal of free blacks in order to keep slavery secure Many antislavery whites supported colonization because of difficulty of races to live in harmony © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22
Black Colonization William Thornton Earliest campaign for colonization to Africa Based on belief that races could not live amicably Paul Cuffee Man of mixed African and Indian descent who owned and built ships; proposed to establish emigration and trade relations with Sierra Leone With James Forten’s help, established Friendly Society of Sierra Leone in Philadelphia Sailed to Freetown in 1815 from Boston with 38 emigrants, at his own expense © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24 Paul Cuffee
Black Colonization American Colonization Society Made up of mix of slaveholders and abolitionists Colony of Liberia formed as result of its efforts Black Opposition Philadelphia blacks negatively responded to colonization Black opposition grew in many cities Whether to stay or leave America continued to be debate in black communities throughout antebellum period © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25
The Contagion of Liberty Gabriel’s Rebellion in Virginia August 30, 1800, more than 1,000 blacks participated in a failed attempt to rebel with purpose of negotiating end of slavery Conspirators influenced by Haitian revolution, news from other parts of the world from black sailors, and the arrival of French-speaking slaves and slave owners Plots and Rumors Unrest among slaves continued into following year © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26
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