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Developing Racial Slavery. Portuguese in Africa First Europeans to explore African coast –begin in early 1400s –searching for route to India First Europeans.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Racial Slavery. Portuguese in Africa First Europeans to explore African coast –begin in early 1400s –searching for route to India First Europeans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Racial Slavery

2 Portuguese in Africa First Europeans to explore African coast –begin in early 1400s –searching for route to India First Europeans to establish slave trade –cannot conquer African states –establish trade alliances with Africans Control trade from First Europeans to explore African coast –begin in early 1400s –searching for route to India First Europeans to establish slave trade –cannot conquer African states –establish trade alliances with Africans Control trade from

3 Atlantic Slave Trade 1501: 1st slaves to Hispanolia 1591: permit-up to 38,250 slaves st African slaves in British N.America Between million Africans were exported 1501: 1st slaves to Hispanolia 1591: permit-up to 38,250 slaves st African slaves in British N.America Between million Africans were exported

4 Destination of Africans

5 The Inhuman Trade Death Rate Century 25% 16th c. 15% 17th c. 10% 18th c. Grocery Stores keep waste below 3% Death Rate Century 25% 16th c. 15% 17th c. 10% 18th c. Grocery Stores keep waste below 3%

6 Atlantic World 1800

7 Transforming Slavery The exportation of Africans changed slavery in African Europe and the Americas. The change in scale from thousands to tens and hundreds of thousands per year is one change. The industrial rather than domestic nature of slavery in the Americas was a second difference.

8 N-S Geography mountain v. flatland river system climate mountain v. flatland river system climate The differences between the northern and southern U.S. meant that large scale plantation crops grew only in the South. Consequently, slaves were concentrated there.

9 Population Distribution 1750 Southern labor needs limited immigration Southern labor needs limited immigration

10 The Road Not Taken In the early 1600’s small communities of free Blacks emerged on the Virginia and Maryland coasts. These communities show the equality between the races in a pre-racist world. By the end of the century these communities would be wiped out, and their inhabitants reduced to slavery on account of their race.

11 Slavery and antimiscegination law Slavery legally recognized 1638 MD 1641 MA 1650 Conn 1652 SC 1661 VA 1664 NY & NJ 1700 PA & RI 1750 GA Slavery legally recognized 1638 MD 1641 MA 1650 Conn 1652 SC 1661 VA 1664 NY & NJ 1700 PA & RI 1750 GA Miscegination outlawed 1664MD 1691VA 1705MA 1715NC 1717SC 1721DL 1725PA

12 Legalizing Slavery 1638 MD 1641 MA 1650 Conn 1652 SC 1661 VA 1664 NY & NJ 1700 PA & RI 1750 GA 1638 MD 1641 MA 1650 Conn 1652 SC 1661 VA 1664 NY & NJ 1700 PA & RI 1750 GA The legal recognition of slavery places the power of government in the service of masters

13 Anti Miscegenation Laws 1664MD 1691VA 1705MA 1715NC 1717SC 1721DL 1725PA 1664MD 1691VA 1705MA 1715NC 1717SC 1721DL 1725PA Anti-miscegination laws use the power of the state to ensure that racial differences are maintained over time. These reinforce slavery and prevent the arising of Takaki’s “giddy multitude.”

14 Early Abolition 1688 Germantown Proclamation 1770 Boston Quaker school Germantown PA, 1759 Religiously Based 1688 Germantown Proclamation 1770 Boston Quaker school Germantown PA, 1759 Religiously Based

15 Slave Revolts Resistance From the Start –1687 VA, 1711 NC –1739 Cato Conspiracy –1740 MD

16 Rights of Man Thomas Paine James Otis Abigail Adams T. Jefferson Thomas Paine James Otis Abigail Adams T. Jefferson Men are given power of Reason, Reason allows men to see that their interests are best served by creating government, Government must recognize individual citizen as sovereign: free and equal Men are given power of Reason, Reason allows men to see that their interests are best served by creating government, Government must recognize individual citizen as sovereign: free and equal

17 1st Abolition Society Philadelphia in 4/14/1775 –Ben Franklin, chair –Quaker organization Philadelphia in 4/14/1775 –Ben Franklin, chair –Quaker organization

18 Africans “Manhood” 1777 Prince Hall’s petition 1780 Taxation and Representation 1797 Petition Congress 1777 Prince Hall’s petition 1780 Taxation and Representation 1797 Petition Congress

19 Civic Organizations Free African Society in Phil –Absalom Jones and Richard Allen Boston, 1796 Independent Masonic lodges. –Prince Hall, Boston 1787 School and educational organizations –African Free School, NYC 11/1/1787 Free African Society in Phil –Absalom Jones and Richard Allen Boston, 1796 Independent Masonic lodges. –Prince Hall, Boston 1787 School and educational organizations –African Free School, NYC 11/1/1787

20 Independent Churches Discrimination in White churches –Baptist Church Savannah, GA 1787 –AME Founded: Richard Allen, 1794 Independece, 4/9/1816 Discrimination in White churches –Baptist Church Savannah, GA 1787 –AME Founded: Richard Allen, 1794 Independece, 4/9/1816 Richard Allen

21 Intellectuals Phyllis Wheatly Benjamin Banneker Jupiter Hammon Phyllis Wheatly Benjamin Banneker Jupiter Hammon

22 Africans in Revolution Crispus Attucks, 3/5/1770 Boston massacre Crispus Attucks, 3/5/1770 Boston massacre

23 Africans Under Arms Congress prohibits enlistment 10/13/1775 –fear of arming slaves and Africans –fear that British will also use African troops Lord Dunmore (English) –11/6/1775 Emancipates males who enlist G. Washington –12/31/75 orders recruitment –Treaty of Paris returns slaves Congress prohibits enlistment 10/13/1775 –fear of arming slaves and Africans –fear that British will also use African troops Lord Dunmore (English) –11/6/1775 Emancipates males who enlist G. Washington –12/31/75 orders recruitment –Treaty of Paris returns slaves

24 Northern Abolition YearState 1777VT 1780PA 1783Mass (gradual) 1783NH 1784CN (gradual) largest slave pop. 1784Rhode Island 1799NY (gradual) 1804NJ YearState 1777VT 1780PA 1783Mass (gradual) 1783NH 1784CN (gradual) largest slave pop. 1784Rhode Island 1799NY (gradual) 1804NJ

25 Constitution Compromise Trade continued until 1803 –1808 Congress ends slave trade Return of fugitive slaves by free state to slave states The enumeration issue –census and taxation –census and representation –The “three fifths” compromise Trade continued until 1803 –1808 Congress ends slave trade Return of fugitive slaves by free state to slave states The enumeration issue –census and taxation –census and representation –The “three fifths” compromise


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