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Chapter 5 Give Me Liberty From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 American foot soldiers during the Yorktown campaign, 1781
The Paradox of Slavery and Freedom Freedom in a Slave Society Colonial propaganda “No taxation without representation” Use of racial imagery Revolutionary rhetoric of freedom rallied whites while tightening grip on blacks The “American paradox” – calls for freedom for whites while keeping blacks as property Jefferson’s sympathetic words against slavery stricken from Declaration of Independence Unacceptable to delegations from the Lower South © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
The Paradox of Slavery and Freedom Some colonists began to admit the contradiction in the identity of oppressed colonist and slaveholder Birth of the Antislavery Movement White antislavery rhetoric not lost on slaves Boston slaves at forefront of black freedom petition movement Northern blacks participated in street protests © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
The Paradox of Slavery and Freedom Crispus Attucks Runaway slave killed in the Boston Massacre Buried with honors Phillis Wheatley Famous slave poet; intellect nurtured by master While a slave, traveled to England to oversee publication of her book, meet her patron Set free upon return © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
6 The Boston Massacre
Fighting for American Independence Blacks Against the British Colonists struggled with question of arming both slave and free blacks Blacks fought at Lexington, Concord, Battle of Bunker Hill One month after formation of Continental Army, official policy was to reject services of black soldiers The British Appeal Dunmore Proclamation – give slaves freedom if join British army © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
8 Barzillai Lew
Fighting for American Independence Black unrest intensified Dunmore’s “Ethiopian Regiment” Virginia Convention denounced British acts, promised to pardon slaves who returned within 10 days Washington’s Response Worried about enlistment of blacks in British army Partially reversed earlier policy – allowed free blacks who previously served to join the ranks © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
Fighting for American Independence The Revolution and Slavery Revolutionary struggle had unsettling effect on slavery Also became struggle between master and slave General Clinton’s Proclamation Slaves in service of Patriots to be sold if captured; slaves who sought refuge with British protected Fugitive slaves often became plunder of war for both sides © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
Fighting for American Independence Individual State Policies Rebel’s military policies began to liberalize States began to vie against each other in enlisting blacks Only Georgia and South Carolina opposed enlistment of black soldiers Black Military Distinction 5,000 of 20,000 Revolutionary soldiers black Only few separate fighting units; most integrated Many distinguished black soldiers Future Haitian revolutionaries assisted French © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
Fighting for American Independence Black Loyalists American victory caused dispersal of black Loyalists Many sent to Caribbean; reinvigorated plantations Freed blacks went to Nova Scotia and England Some left England and settled in Sierra Leone © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Loyalist black migration to Canada and Sierra Leone
The Movement to Free the Slaves Antislavery Advocates Pennsylvania Abolition Society first antislavery society Most Patriot soldier slaves were freed upon enlistment or promised freedom at end of service High profile people began to speak out against slavery Antislavery societies more widespread after the war Collected information on slavery, published reports on progress of emancipation © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
The Movement to Free the Slaves Free North, Slave South Upper South, slaves freed only by private manumission In the North, states began to adopt laws abolishing slavery © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
The Conservative Reaction Shays’s Rebellion Farmers’ revolt for economic justice Blacks participated on both sides The Three-Fifths Compromise Slavery central on issues of taxation and representation at Constitutional Convention Many whites did not want to be on equal footing as blacks Delegates agreed to count black men as three-fifths of all other people © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
The Conservative Reaction The Slave Trade By the time of the Constitutional Convention, many states already prohibited Atlantic slave trade South Carolina’s Charles Pinckney refused to accept a Constitution that prohibited the Atlantic slave trade Compromise allowed Lower South to continue Atlantic slave trade for at least 20 years © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
The Conservative Reaction Fugitive Slaves Almost no opposition to provision that states be required to surrender fugitive slaves to their owners The Language of the Constitution The words slavery and slave do not appear in Constitution Instead, “all other persons” or “such persons” © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
WHAT IS THE TRUTH about VIRGINIA and the REVOLUTIONARY WAR?
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