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Chapter 3 Establishing North American Slavery From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 New Amsterdam
Imperial Claims to North America Early Settlements Slaves played important role in Spanish efforts to gain foothold in North America Africans part of establishment of San Miguel Gualdape, St. Augustine Provided muscle to build new outposts North American slavery emerged as Europeans struggled for colonies, trade, and key ports In early years, most slaves imported from Caribbean, where they had been “seasoned” Creoles – “born in the New World” © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
4 North American colonies, 1650
Imperial Claims to North America Forms of North American Slavery North American slavery in colonies assumed different forms depending on: Founding circumstances Laws of European homeland Fluctuation in colonial jurisdictions © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
Before Permanent Bondage Early Virginia 70 to 85 percent of whites arriving at 17 th century Chesapeake were indentured servants No criteria for distinguishing slaves from servants Terms of servitude flexible Whites and blacks still differentiated by social distinctions of everyday practices and institutional form © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
Before Permanent Bondage New Netherland Access to freedom more available Legal codes did not establish fixed status of racial slavery Manumission with qualifications available “Half-freedom” Annual dues to Dutch West India Company Denied children free status © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
8 Runaway slave advertisement
Before Permanent Bondage Massachusetts Bay First colony to legally sanction slavery; law not racially or ethnically specific Under Puritan social structure, slaves incorporated into families they served © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
10 Baptism of slaves
The Legalization of Slavery Virginia Slave Codes Legalization of slavery result of labor shortage Bacon’s Rebellion of 1676 spurred enactment of stricter slave laws Authorities troubled by black and poor white alliance New laws coincided with growth in number of slaves Black population restive; more laws passed to discipline slave population Rights of free blacks limited, branded racial inferiors © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 White and Black Populations in the British Colonies,
The Legalization of Slavery New York Slave Codes Slave law enacted in 1702 Slave unrest Insurrection in 1712; Mary Burton © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13
The Legalization of Slavery New England’s Laws In late 17 th century, New England laws took away liberties previously enjoyed by blacks Still had more rights than other British colonies Could testify in court, sue, petition for freedom Allowed to marry, but if owned by different masters forced to live apart © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
The Legalization of Slavery The Carolinas Permanent servitude law before settlement began John Locke – “every freeman of Carolina shall have absolute power and authority over his negro slaves, of what opinion or religion soever” Growth of black population led to laws to control activities of slaves Slave patrols © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
The Legalization of Slavery Slave Courts Enforcement of slave code through separate judicial system dispensing local and swift judgment Slave Laws in French Louisiana Prior to 1724 no hard and fast rules for racial subordination Slave codes emerged after importation of large number of Africans © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
The Legalization of Slavery The Code Noir Sought to reduce manumission and curb interracial mixing Denied property rights; severe punishment for runaways Required masters to provide religious instruction, adequate food and clothing Outlawed separation of husbands and wives and taking children under 14 from parents Law was often broken or ignored © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
The Legalization of Slavery Spanish Louisiana After French transfer of Louisiana to Spain, slaves given more access to freedom Spanish law of coartación allowed slaves to purchase freedom and caused increase in free black population Access to freedom did not amount to full racial equality © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
MONDAY 9/21 Key concepts/Chapter 4: Freedom Dues: In the early years of the Virginia colony, many Africans and poor whites -- most of the laborers came.
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