Presentation on theme: "Wildwood: Before Lewis & Clark. Trade & Commerce “Louisiana” or the “Illinois Territory” was under Spanish control from 1770 to 1800. During this period."— Presentation transcript:
Trade & Commerce “Louisiana” or the “Illinois Territory” was under Spanish control from 1770 to 1800. During this period most furs and hides were transported to Montreal, not New Orleans, by the local French leaders. Considerable interaction with the French Canadians as St. Louis was the closest “French” city south of Canada.
Religious Issues After 1795 the Spanish government did not FORCE American immigrants to become Catholic, or limit land grants to non-Catholics, but Protestants were forbidden from openly practicing their religion.
Timeline 1720 French explorers went up the Missouri River 1795-1800: Virginia, Kentucky & Tennesse immigrants moved onto land grants along the Missouri River (Treaty of Madrid signed in 1795) 1797: Ninian Hamilton & his sons moved to a land grant at Lewis Springs
Concurrent events: 1795 Manchester had its first settlers City of St. Louis had approximately 1000 inhabitants Hudson’s Bay Company established a fort at Edmonton, Alberta Samuel Morey receives a patent for a steam engine that will be applied to paddle-wheel boats.
James Mackay –Fur-trapper turned explorer for the Spanish government –Given the Title of Commandant of St. Andre Antoine Soulard, Surveyor General for the Spanish Government –Married Julie Cerre. He was therefore a brother-in-law to Auguste Chouteau. Leading Characters in Early “Wildwood”
James Mackay Born 1759 in County Sutherland, Scotland. Came to North America in 1776. Traveled to Mandan Indian villages in North Dakota before 1788 Set up Fort Carlos IV (Fort Charles) near the present day town of Homer, Nebraska in 1797 Married Isabella Long in 1800 And had nine children.
Mackay James Mackay was not paid for his work on the exploration to North Dakota, so he asked for 46,000 arpents of land as payment. Spanish governor approved as long as he wasn’t taking anyone else’s claimed land. In the same letter Mackay asked permission for a friend in St. Charles (Lawrence Deroche) to set up a billiards table. Mackay established the Missouri River community of St. Andre’ (St. Andrews). Was this chosen out of deference to his coworker, Antoinne “Andre” Soulard, Surveyor General for the Spanish government?
Interesting inhabitants of St. Andre’ JOHN LONG born in Port Royal,Virginia in 1752. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary War and engaged in the Battle of Brandywine under General LaFayette. After the war he was made captain of the ship "Liverpool" for five years. In 1794 he and his family moved to Kentucky. In 1796 they moved to St. Louis,Missouri and settled on a Spanish Grant of land issued by Don Zenon Trudeau in Bonhomme (St. Andre). In 1807 they moved to Gravois and lived on Survey No. 9. He was one of the first white settlers in the County. His daughter Isabella married James Mackay.
The Longs Father: Captain John Long Elisabeth “Isabella” Louise Long married James Mackay. Nancy married Eli Musick. William married Elizabeth Sappington. Together they built a little place on Gravois that would be known as Whitehaven (and sold to the Dents four years later). In 1818 William created a settlement on the Meramec that he named after his grandmother. The town lots didn’t sell well and were sold on the courthouse steps (much like Melrose) about 1840. William’s sons bought the property and were much more successful in developing it into a town.
John Fenton Long John Fenton Long, who was born at White Haven on Gravois Road in 1816. “Fent” grew up on his father’s farm and attended private schools until he was 16, when he went to St. Charles college. He opened his own private school (Julia Dent was one of his students) and practiced land surveying off and on for 37 years. John Long and his brother, Alton, helped build Grant build his “Hardscrabble” log cabin. Long was a deputy marshall, chief of police and postmaster. Later was a member of the St. Louis County Court. 1874 he was appointed US Surveyor and Collector of Customs for the Port of St. Louis by U.S. Grant. Long handled all of Grant’s business affairs in Missouri while he was president. The last letter written by Grant was to his friend “Judge” John Fenton Long.
Rufus Easton Rufus Easton bought property from the Stevens farm near St. Andre. He later became the first postmaster of St. Louis, and probably ranks second to Ben Franklin in terms of influence on the US Postal Service. You’ve heard of his son, Colonel Alton Easton. Easton’s daughter married George Sibley for whom Fort Sibley was named, better know later as Arrowrock. Sibley and his wife received land in St. Charles as part of a business settlement. In an area covered with linden trees Mrs. Sibley opened a school for girls. Later known as Lindenwood College, it is the second oldest college west of the Mississippi.
Influence of Easton Rufus Easton was a lawyer from Connecticut who moved to this area to become a land speculator. He trained Frederick Bates brother, Edward, in law. Edward became the Attorney General under Lincoln and before Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, Bates declared that all Negroes were U.S. citizens. The Bates’ younger brother moved to Arkansas and became a well-known lawyer and legislator there. Batesville is named after him. Frederick Bates was one of the three “land judges” (the others were Hunt and Penrose) who decided on the Spanish Land Grants. For the most part he refused to vote on requests made by Rufus Easton due to the help he had given his brother, Edward.
Notes On the 1797 Mackay Map Dutchman’s Creek – the Grons family (Pennsylvania Germans) Place du Moulin (french for mill) Notable spelling changes Noted settlers across the Missouri, but did NOT include Mckinney or McFall
St. Andrews Settlers who retained their Spanish Land Grants Thomas Cropper William Belle (#909) John Henry’s Widow (#668) Alex Courtney & Henry Mcloughlin (#152) Colgin (#459) James Mackay (#1956) Richardson: John, Jesse, & James (132, 133, 362) William Massey & William Bellew (#153) Stephenson & Bayse (#169) John Murphy & Mitch Odum (#164)
Wildwood settlers (outside St. Andrews) who received Spanish land grants: Ninian Bell Hamilton Andrew Hamilton William Hamilton Ninian Hamilton William Bellew George McFall William Bell Theophitus Mckinnon (McKinney) Francis Bittick
So... How many of Wildwood’s earliest settlers are you related to?