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The Northwest Territory

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1 The Northwest Territory
Unit 2, Lesson 4

2 The United States The Treaty of Paris officially named the United States of America as a new country. Treaty = gave most British Lands south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River to the United States British still held some forts. Spain claimed lands west of the Mississippi River.

3 A New Territory The United States had many debts post-war.
American Revolution = costly Debt  something owned, often money Many American soldiers, farmers, and merchants had not been paid. France, which helped the United States win the war by sending soldiers and supplies, was also owed money.

4 A New Territory Congress decided to use lands in an area that came to be called the Northwest Territory to help pay debts. Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota Territory  an area owned and governed by a country Plan = Congress would pay some soldiers with land instead of money. Other lands in the territory would be sold to raise money.

5 The Northwest Territory

6 Settling the Northwest Territory
Before Congress could use the lands in the Northwest Territory, it had to settle some border conflicts. Parts were claimed by states (Virginia, New York) In many ways, the 13 colonies acted like separate countries before the Revolutionary War. The war had shown the importance of acting as one nation. To support the new government, states gave up their land claims.

7 The Land Ordinance of 1785 Land Ordinance of 1785 a plan passed by Congress to settle the Northwest Territory Ordinance  law The ordinance told how the Northwest Territory would be surveyed (measured). Land was divided into squares called townships. Each township was then divided into 36 smaller squares (sections). Each section was one square mile. One section in each township was set aside for a school.

8 The Land Ordinance of 1785

9 The Northwest Ordinance
1787  Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance This law set up a plan for governing the Northwest Territory Described how new states would be formed Land in the Northwest Territory would be divided into large territories. Once a territory had 60,000 people, it could become a state. Each new state would be equal to the other state in every way.

10 The Northwest Ordinance
The Northwest Ordinance promised settlers freedom of religion and other rights. Right  a freedom that belongs to a person Slavery was banned in states formed from the Northwest Territory. Congress appointed Arthur St. Clair, a former Revolutionary War general, as governor of the Northwest Territory. Part of his task was to stop the fighting between settlers and Native Americans.

11 The Northwest Ordinance
Native Americans in the Northwest Territory did not want to leave their lands. 1789  St. Clair convinced some tribes to sign the Treaty of Fort Harmar Tribes gave up much of their lands Most Native Americans ignored the treaty because many leaders were not at the treaty talks.

12 The Northwest Ordinance

13 The Ohio Territory Land in the Northwest Territory did not cost much.
Some land was sold for less than $1 an acre. The land was sold in big pieces, usually to companies who then sold similar pieces of land to settlers.

14 Early Towns Many people were eager to settle in what is now Ohio.
As land became easier to buy, settlers from eastern states and Europe began to move to the region. Marietta  first town in the Ohio Territory Founded by 50 settlers in 1788 Led by Rufus Putnam  started one of the companies that had bought land in Ohio from the government

15 Marietta, Ohio Directions

16 Early Towns Cincinnati Belpre Cleveland
Land purchased by John Cleves Symmes Originally named Losantiville in 1790 by Arthur St. Clair Belpre Bathsheba Rouse  first female teacher in Ohio Territory Began teaching in this are in 1789 Cleveland Rebecca Fuller and her family were the first Europeans to settle in this area. Their log cabin served as the community’s store, trading post, church and jail.

17 Farms and Businesses Farmers in Ohio:
Grew wheat, corn, and fruit. Raised cattle, pigs, and sheep which were often sold to people in eastern cities. Early businesses in Ohio served settlers. Mills ground grain into flour. Cincinnati became a pork-processing center in the early 1800s Other businesses build farm tools, and there were stores, blacksmiths, and barbers in early towns.

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