Opening sentence: “ The location of Pompeii as a port and central to the fertile Campanian hinterland and Italian penninsula ensured its vibrant and cosmopolitan economic activity in primary secondary and tertiary activity. The excavation of up to 600 shops indicates the scale of such economic activity ” Give a brief description of major industries textiles, ( refer to source ) wine and oil, garum, bakeries and a couple of minor ones like perfume( recent excavation) and pottery ( Jaye Pont study) With each industry be able to give at least one piece of specific supporting evidence eg The Bakery of Modestus where 81 loaves of bread were recovered. If space allows mention market days, numismatical evidence and the shops The wax tablets of Caecilius Jacundus records commercial transactions recording receipts for loans and rent is valuable supporting evidence
The amount of tangible evidence on women in the cities of Vesuvius is limited and fragmentary. Evidence of women in art is usually a male depiction and therefore often idealized Upper class women, literate, politically active in supporting husbands and fathers eg Eumachia inscription ( refer to source ), patroness of Fullers guild Business Women, Often in partnership with their husbands, women could earn profits, run shops and engage in crafts and trades. independent and wealthy; tomb of Naevola Tyche and House of Julia Felix Of somewhat lower status women worked independently in making and mending clothes. They were also employed in the Fuller industry, both slave and free. Women could own and operate taverns, inns and bars, which also served as food outlets ( prostitution ??) Graffiti advertisements tell us that Valeria Hedone was an innkeeper; “ Hedone says ‘ You can drink here for one as, if you give two, you will drink better; if you give four, you will drink Falernian.’” Slave Women This class had a wide range of duties, including personal attendants, for the wealthy, household slaves who did cooking and cleaning, nannies and wet nurses. Slave women who earned their freedom could then own their own slaves.Slaves could be freed by a brief ceremony called manumission eg Bracelet “ from a grateful master to his slave girl” Laser and Bisel skeletal evidence
A Marcus Holconius Rufus, military leader elected by the people, duumir five times, twice duumvir five- year, a priest of Augustus Caesar, protector of the Colony. Statue of Nonius Balbus in Herculaneum
Families like Balbus and Rufus ( refer to source ) formed the local elite. Some from wealth and some from Patrician background expressed status through patronage The Patron-Client relationship allowed the giving of advice, granting of favors, food and money to people of lower status. In turn, these people would work for your next election and if able to vote, would vote for you The wealthy maintained strong ties of political friendships, ie Amicitas Examples of programmata “ Wake up and Vote for Helvius Sabinus for Aedile” Political structure and responsibilities Opening sentence; “Pompeii and Herculaneum, like all provincial towns were self governing in local matters. Written evidence from Cicero and epigraphic evidence suggests intense competition for the various magistracies, particularly Dumviri and Aedile. as a way of achieving social status” Manner of election and duties of the Council, Quattuorvri, Quinquennales, Dumviri, Aediles and Peoples Assembly ( refer to source ) Be able to support with evidence from statues, inscriptions, graffiti slogans and any other modern sources that you can possibly remember You could include discussion of the political buildings, Curia, Comitium and Basilicas as well as the fundamental patron client relationship made visible through the Salutatio.
LARGE THEATRE (VIII,7,20-21,27,30) Built in the 2nd century BC, this theatre takes advantage of the natural slope of the land to create the tiers of seats ( refer to source ) (cavea), in a horseshoe shape divided into three zones, of which the lower (ima cavea), covered with marble, was reserved for the decurions and important citizens. The ring corridor supporting the upper tiers, and the 'balconies' above the side entrances, were added during the Augustan period: thus the theatre could hold approximately 5,000 spectators. The stage and opus latericium backdrop decorated with marbles and statues date from the restoration in 62 AD, after the earthquake. The works performed here quite likely included the Atellanae (popular farces in the Oscan language), the plays of Plautus and Terentius, mimes and pantomimes (with dancing and music Troups of performers went on tour to different towns in Campania; Actius Anicetus and his troupe of actors inspired a number of graffiti, recorded in Pompeii and Herculaneum “Actius, master of stage performers” Mozaics and frescoes like the one shown here were found in various houses including the House of the Tragic Poet and the Villa of Cicero Theatre masks were also found and there is a plentiful supply of graffiti concerning actors The small theatre was a covered theatre holding about 1,500 people and mainly used for more serious and intimate performances of musical concerts, poetry readings and mime Although women didn’t play a large part in performances it is thought that they participated in mime and pantomime. There is graffiti about an actress called Histrionica Rotica which could support this theory
“Sound mind and a Sound Body” Every Roman town had an open sports ground. The Large Palaestra was 107x 141 metres rectangle with enclosed walls. In the centre was a large swimming pool.( refer to source ) The Herculaneum Palaestra occupied a whole block and had an impressive swimming pool with fountain. In and around these, activities like athletics, wrestling, javelin, discus throwing took place Both men and women could participate in events. Athletics played a major role in the Roman culture, recreation,military training, fitness,competition and education
The Roman adage, ‘a sound mind in a sound body’ contributed to their passion for physical exercise & the baths Four thermae have been found in Pompeii Forum Baths, Central Baths, Stabian Baths, Sarno Baths Herculaneum had 2 thermae STRUCTURE Vestibule – exercise yard,Apodyterium – change/waiting rooms Frigidarium – circular cold bath Tepidarium – warm room, transition space Laconicum – sweating room Caldarium – hot room with rectangular heated bath. Hot air circulated through the interstices (hypocaustum) under the marble floor The ceiling had grooves that channelled condensation down the walls to prevent it dripping onto bathers ACTIVITIES Visitors could practise physical activity, play sport, indulge in massage, stroll in the gardens, listen to music, read & conduct business ( patrons would meet clients as well ) A favourite game was pila, played with an inflated animal bladder ~ J.J. Deiss Slaves often accompanied their masters ~ J. J. Deiss Slaves would apply a mixture of olive oil & finely ground pumice then scrape off the dirt with a strigil, a curved implement ~ J. J. Deiss Women wore a two-piece costume, men wore leather trunks or bathed naked Pornographic graffiti suggests that sexual activity may have taken place From the discovery of 100s of lamps it appears that the baths stayed open at night – bustling lively places. ~ ‘Here I am surrounded by all kinds of noise (my lodgings overlook a bathhouse) ~ Seneca
There is no such thing as a standard house in Pompeii or Herculaneum. Hadrill identified four different groups of houses, combining various degrees of residential and commercial function- include apartments. Second stories only found at Herculaneum; House of the Bicentenery Room function is highly interpretive, reflecting historical context The removal of material culture from their context makes room function almost impossible to determine. Houses opened directly on to the street and because they were designed to face inwards, their facades were austere with little indication of the elegance within The key feature in the design of urban houses (domus) for the Roman elite is the long axis running from the street entry to the garden. This axis ties together fauces ("jaws"), atrium, tablinum, and peristyle; it is framed by columns ( greek style) (often positioned, as here, to "force" the perspective and make the house look bigger than it actually is). The house falls naturally into to two basic zones, the "negotium" ("business") half focused on the atrium and tablinum, and the "otium" ("leisure") half, focused on the peristyle. Most houses included several dining rooms and cubicula, and many included small, private bathing facilities House decoration functioned as illusion ( views to the outside as in the Villa Rustica ) and allusion, usually referencing Greek mythology Supporting examples House of Faun, etc
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