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Presentation on theme: "HADRIAN’S BATHS AT LEPTIS MAGNA"— Presentation transcript:

Date: AD Location: Leptis (or Lepcis) Magna, a Roman Colony in North Africa Architect: The Emperor Hadrian (probably)

2 Republican / Pompeian Style
Imperial Style Republican / Pompeian Style earlier style, smaller asymmetric No laconicum (sream room) different facilities for men and women larger scale bilateral symmetry (mirror image) same facilities for both sexes

3 BATHS IN GENERAL going to the baths was a daily routine for most Roman men. because the baths were a very important part of city life access cost very little, sometimes it was even free. women had access to the baths but went at different times because there were no separate facilities for them. these baths were: a source of civic pride, a triumph of Roman technology, a sign of wealth and security in a province, a sign of Roman might to the local inhabitants, a sign of Imperial generosity and concern in a province.

4 2. Apodyterium (Changing rooms) 3. Natatio (Swimming pool)
Palestrae – exercise field - sea facing side 3. Natatio (Swimming pool) 1. Latrina Cooler rooms are at northern end of complex 5. Cold plunge baths 4. Frigidarium (cold room) Tepidarium (warm room) 7. Laconica (Steam rooms) Additional rooms are for dining, reading, massage 6.Caldarium (hot room) Hotter rooms at southern end 8. Hypocastum (furnaces)

5 Concrete cross-vaulted ceiling
Painted ceiling Corinthian columns Marble floors Cold plunge pools prob. added by Commodus

6 DESIGN OF THESE BATHS the baths are symmetrical and are placed on a north/south axis. these baths were set up so the bather would naturally progress from the… unheated palaestra and frigidarium to the warmer tepidarium to the super-heated caldarium and laconica.

7 THE HYPOCAUSTUM a heated tank (the boiler) of water fed hot water to various parts of the baths. the hottest rooms were closer to the furnace. it also heated rooms by: circulating warm air under the floor which was raised on little piers of bricks under the floor. or through hollow spaces in the walls (flues).

APODYTERIUM = changing room FRIGIDARIUM = room with cold pools TEPIDARIUM = warm room for heating up the body CALADRIUM = room with hot pools LACONICUM = steam room for sweating UNCTORIUM = massage room LATRINA = toilet HYPOCAUSTUM = furnace room

9 NATATIO this swimming pool was 1.75m deep
it was the largest area in the baths. it had a vaulted portico of Corinthian columns on three sides and was the base was decorated with a gravel-like mosaic.

10 FRIGIDARIUM the frigidarium’s roof was larger than the other roofs.
the roof consists of cross vaults. huge arched entrance ways were at the east and west ends. the walls were originally covered with elaborate marble.

11 TEPIDARIUM this was the first warm room.
it was entered via a central door in the southern wall of the frigidarium. its main feature was a marble plunge bath which was entered through an arched opening flanked by grey marble columns. two smaller baths were added later on each side of the central bath. These two smaller baths were surrounded by black marble columns.

12 CALDARIUM the largest of the hot rooms at 22m x 10.9m and was entered through the tepidarium. it was the most sourthern of the rooms. its was roofed with a barrel-vault with five arched windows

13 LACONICA these were superheated sweat rooms.
there were four rooms and they were to the north of the caldarium. these rooms were made for people to sit in and sweat in, they would then be scraped.

14 IS IT HOT IN HERE…? the hotter rooms were placed on the southern side of the baths because of the position of the sun in the afternoon. there were a number of furnace rooms on the south side, close to the caldarium and the laconica.

PALAESTRA a vast exercise yard was to the north of the bath complex. NON-WET ROOMS a further series of chambers run along the western and eastern sides of the complex that may have: libraries, rest areas, maybe even lecture halls.

16 LATRINA the toilets were on the east and west sides of the northern end. they had three sides of marble seated toilets. the toilets were also communal. there was also had an apse in each toilet to hold a statue.

Reflected in the planning of the complex is the hot-to-cold bathing process; the central bathing facilities were arranged in sequence eg the laconica are arranged on either side of the caldarium, then bathers moved to the tepidarium before entering the frigidarium .  The caldarium was placed at the southern end of the complex to take full advantage of the afternoon sun. The windows of the caldarium were placed at the southern end of the complex to take full advantage of the afternoon sun. The hypocaust was placed directly behind the laconica and the caldarium; furtherest away from cool rooms. The floors of the laconica and caldarium were raised to allow the circulation of hot air underneath. The bathing process was facilitated by the provision of framed views into other bathing areas provided through artfully arranged screens of columns The palaestra and the natatio are both used for exercise therefore they were placed next to each other.  The apodyteria and toilets positioned next to each other. There was space in the frigidarium for social intercourse.


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