Presentation on theme: "The Roman Domus: Architecture and Domestic Life in the Republic House fronts in a residential neighborhood in Pompeii."— Presentation transcript:
The Roman Domus: Architecture and Domestic Life in the Republic House fronts in a residential neighborhood in Pompeii
I. Roman Domus (house), a Mediterranean courtyard house designed for sociability, business, and the individuality of the owner Typical Roman domus, Pompeii, Italy, 1 st cen. BC - 1 st cen. AD domus = house (from dominus meaning lord, head of household)
earlier Italic scheme courtyard house I. A. The basic configuration of a Roman domus: 1. How did the Roman domus of the republican period differ from other courtyard houses in Italy and Greece? Classical Greek oikos, Olynthos, Greece
Typical Roman domus 1 st cen. BC - 1 st cen. AD I. A. 1. Greek Hellenistic oikos Palace at Pergamon, 2 nd cen. BC 1. GreekLate Classical oikos w/ peristyle court, 4 th cen. BC
House of Pansa, 2 nd cen. BC I. A. 2. What were the typical size, materials, entrances, fenestration, facade, and relationship to the street (tabernae = shop space)? Roman domuses in Pompeii
I. A. 2. Earlier houses and upper floors of later houses Later houses: concrete ground floor
opus reticulatum from 3 rd cen. BCfrom ca. 120 BCfrom AD 50 wood form work for concrete I. A. 2. facings for Roman concrete
I. A. 2. typical Roman domus tabernae (leasable shop space)
I. B. Plan: Key spaces in the typical domus plan and their use 1. vestibule and fauces typical Roman domus 1 Entrance to the House of the Faun 2 nd cen. BC
I. B. 2. atrium with impluvium surrounded by all-purpose rooms (cubicula) typical Roman domus 1 2 House of Menander, Pompeii, late 1 st cen. BC atrium (digital reconstruction) cubicula impluvium collects rain water
I. B. 3. tablinum – office, record room tablinum House of Menander, Pompeii, late 1 st cen. BC House of the Faun, Pompeii, 2 nd cen. BC 1 2 3
I. B. 4. peristyle court typical Roman domus peristyle court
I. B. 5. triclinium (formal dining room) typical Roman domus triclinium – dining room oecus principal hall or reception room
Roman domus Classical Greek oikos axial organization centripetal organization I. C. Cultural character of the domusI. C. 1. What typical Roman planning principles organize the spaces in the Roman domus?
I. C. 2. What architectural elements from pubic architecture are found in the Roman domus? Classical orders (pilasters) on the doorClassical orders, pediment in peristyle courtyard House of the Faun, 2 nd cen. BC House of Menander, Pompeii, late 1 st cen. BC
I. C. 3. What are some social tensions that emerge from the need for opulence and openness in the domus compared to the Greek oikos? Frescoes, stucco relief, and mosaic floors in the House of Menander, late 1 st cen. BC 2. 3.
Greek oikos A. How did the Roman house negotiate gender roles? II. The social space of the Roman Domus: gender and social status Roman domus House of the Faun, 2 nd cen. BC Ano Liossia, Greece, 5 th cen. BC
House of the Faun, 2 nd cen. BC II. B. Private vs. public: how the design of the domus negotiated social relationships with non-family members II. B. 1. What spaces were for a lower social class clientele of the dominus (uninvited guests)?
II. B. 2. What spaces were for the elite guests and friends of the dominus (invited guests)? House of the Faun – peristyle courtyard and oecus
House of Menander – peristyle courtyard III. B. 2.
Roman domuses of the republic and early empireClassical oikoi in democratic Greece exalt individualismexalt collectivity III. Republican context: How does the republican domus contradict republican values?
House of Menander – fauces-atrium-tablinum axis III. A. How did this spatial organization exalt the dominus (his individuality)?