Presentation on theme: "Pompeii and Herculaneum Baths By Tyler Phelan and Gemma Franklin “Bathing for Romans was a social occasion. The baths were places everybody went almost."— Presentation transcript:
Pompeii and Herculaneum Baths By Tyler Phelan and Gemma Franklin “Bathing for Romans was a social occasion. The baths were places everybody went almost every day. Some baths were communal some were private enterprises, some were expensive and some were cheap”. Quoted by Joseph Jay Diess
The baths in Pompeii The importance of the baths can be gauged from their number- three for the city of Pompeii alone- and from their location in the busiest and most accessible areas of the city. The stabian baths at the Holconius crossroads, the forum baths at the junction of the via del foro and the via di nola, and the central baths at the crossing of the decumanus maxim us and the cardo maximus. These three establishments allow us to follow the development of bath architecture. The forum baths were constructed, right up to the time of the eruption, when the central baths were still unfinished. The central block in all cases comprised the hot bath (caldarium), the warm steam room (tepidarium) and the cold bath (frigidarium), arranged along a single east – west axis. It opened onto the palaestra courtyard, which had a portico running around three sides, the fourth had being taken up an ornamental pool and the service quarters
In the stabian baths, the inclusion of women’s bath, separated from that of men, meant that a sundial had to be used to regulate the opening times for women and men. The separation of men and women can be found at the forum baths. The frigidarium was a circular, vaulted room, the entrance hall and undressing room, or apodyterium, were also vaulted, their ceilings covered with octagonal and circular panels decorated with stucco. A large staff were responsible for seeing to customers needs. Some helped the disabled to climb the steps of baths or to lower themselves into the cold pool, others helped to shower those who were not allowed to bathe, after the bath it was the turn of hair removers, perfumers and masseurs ( who were mainly blacks), these moments of relaxation were all part of the central baths, more and more Pompeian’s could devote themselves to bathing. In the bathing establishment of M.Crassus frugi, there were even salt- water baths, though these were reserved for a privileged clientele.
Activities that take place in the baths Visitors could practice physical exercise, play sport, indulge in a range in therapies (massages), stroll in gardens, listen to music, read in the library, conduct business and receive invitations. From the pornographic graffiti on the walls we are lead to believe that the back rooms of the baths could have been used to conduct sexual based activities. However there is a debate about this and weather it is just pointless pictures on a wall. Also in the baths people would be rubbed down with oils and nice smelling perfumes before they entered the hot baths there they would bath and get clean.
Heating systems of the baths The heating systems of the baths was provided by a charcoal burning furnace located at the back of the caldarium, between the men’s and woman’s sections. There were three boilers which held the water. Hot air circulated through the interstices under the marble floor which was raised about 70-90 cm on brick pillars, and through air ducts built behind the walls To prevent the bathers suffering the nuisance of cold condensation dropping onto them, the ceiling had grooves in the plaster which collected and channelled the condensation down the walls.
15. Chamber for praefurnium 16. Corridor 17. Atrium 18. Vestibule 19. Apodyterium 20. Natatio 21. Tepidarium 22. Concamerata sudata 10. Natatio (cold bath) 11. Room 12. Tepidarium (warming room) 13. Concamerata sudata (thermal chamber) with balneum (warm bath) to the left and Laconicum (dry heat) 14. Passage e. Mouth of furnace f. Furnace and boilers 4. Guardroom or exedra? 5. Corridor 6. Latrina 7. Passage 8. Frigidarium and apodytarium (dressing room) 9. Corridor A. Entrance to smaller baths B-C. Entrances to furnaces D. North entrance to bathing apartments E. East entrance to bathing apartments F. Main entrance to bathing apartments 1. Latrina 2. Portico a. Seats 3. Atrium b. Seats What the numbers indicate on the previous picture
Suburban Baths in Herculaneum In Herculaneum there are two major public baths excavated so far: The Central baths and the suburban baths. There are quite a few rooms in the Suburban Baths men's and women's separate dressing areas, the women's bath and the men's bath; a hot water area and a cooler water area. Herculaneum was a very wealthy community and as such its baths had state of the art plumbing, albeit using lead pipes. But water flowed in and out keeping the bath clean.
Julia Felix’s Private Bath Julia Felix was a Roman woman who resided in the city of Pompeii. From her Roman cognomina it can be seen that her family were most likely freedmen. Julia Felix was a very wealthy property owner who inherited her money from her family. She owned a grand villa that took up an entire block in the city of Pompeii and it is documented by researchers as being well furnished and decorated until it was ruined in a terrible earthquake of 62 A.D. that caused much damage. After the earthquake, she came up with a brilliant idea. Instead of trying to pay for all the damages herself, she rented out her property to residents of Pompeii who may have lost their homes and transformed parts of her villa into public Roman baths, shops, taverns, and apartments. To promote the Roman baths, a complete listing of facilities and a boastful advertising statement about quality was included, and in the villa of Julia Felix it was described as “good enough for Venus”. Renting out her villa helped her earn extra income and establish herself as a property owner, business woman, and public figure in Pompeii.