Presentation on theme: "Pompeii and Herculaneum- TOMBS Features of different tombs Features of different tombs Religious Significance Religious Significance Personal Significance."— Presentation transcript:
Pompeii and Herculaneum- TOMBS Features of different tombs Features of different tombs Religious Significance Religious Significance Personal Significance Personal Significance
Types Of Tombs During the Augustan age, Pompeian‘s imitated the Romans in funerary matters and built grand tombs located outside the city walls. This area was called the necropolis. The key elements were exhibition and self promotion. Tombs could be recognized and categorized by wealth, achievements, political and social rank. Tombs were decorated with columns, stucco, embellishments, statues, frescoes, mosaics.
This is an exedra tomb, a seat tomb. Seat tombs had curved stone seats with room for several people to sit and admire or pay respect to the deceased. This is located towards the back of this tomb. Priestesses Eumachia and Mamia both had seat tombs. Seat Tombs
Less significant tombs The dead was usually cremated, the ashes put in an urn and then placed inside the tomb. Smaller tombs like these were usually those of slaves, freedmen and women.
Citizens Tombs Tombs varied in size depending on the importance of the person it belonged to. Prominent citizens tombs could have included altars, paintings and statues. Most tombs included inscriptions providing details about family background, occupation and positions held in life. The more important the person in the tomb the more detailed the inscription.
Family Tombs Family tombs like this one were popular among richer families. These tombs can usually be distinguished by the number of statues, representing family members, at the front of the tomb. Ashes and heirlooms were placed in the tombs.
Personal Significance Tombs varied from small structures with simple inscriptions to larger more elaborate structures containing altars, paintings, inscriptions and statues. These all depended on the individual to whom the tomb belonged and the personal significance it had to them.
Statues Statues were used to depict the deceased and give visitors an impression of what they were like. Larger statues were used to express importance or wealth This statue from a tomb in ancient pompeii depicts the deceased as being a modest woman. The great detail in this statue is significant in her wanting to be remembered as an important community figure or as being very wealthy.
Inscriptions Inscriptions such as these were found on most tombs. They provided information on social class, family background and occupations. Long and detailed inscriptions indicate importance and wealth. To the right is the remains of the tomb of the Pompeii Priestess Mamia. A great inscription was carved into the outer rim of the tomb to inform visitors of who was buried in the tomb.
Size Of Tombs The larger more elaborate tombs were associated with wealth or high social status. Wealthy citizens had larger and better decorated tombs in order to show their importance. Visitors could also walk into these larger tombs into a small room to pay respect. Smaller, simpler tombs such as these usually belonged to either slaves or freedmen. They give no impression of importance and show low social status. They were poorly decorated and rarely contained an inscription.
Religious Significance Religion was an important part of everyday life for the people of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Religious Ceremonies
Food offerings Death was observed and the dead commemorated with meals. Nothing played a more integral role in religious practices and beliefs in the ancient world than the sharing and consumption of food This plate, also known as a phiale, was used to hold food. Food played an important part in ancient funerals, with meals served to feed both the dead and the living left behind.
Religious Urns Human ashes were placed inside this Etruscan urn, the front of which depicts a mythical battle between two Greek heros, the sons of Oedipus. On top is a representation of the deceased, who reclines as if he were dining at a table. Reclining banqueters were also painted on the interior of many Etruscan tombs.
Religious statues Statues of gods such as this were sometimes found either outside or inside tombs. These statues were placed in tombs as a way of worshipping. People believed by placing statues of gods in or near their tombs these gods would protect the deceased or their living relatives.
Ceremonies The Romans maintained a very systematic approach when tending to the dead. First, relatives would close the deceased's eyes while calling out the name of their dearly departed. The body was then washed and a coin was placed in the mouth. The coin was payment to Charon, who ferried the dead across the rivers of the underworld. Religious ceremonies like this were carried out to ensure the deceased time in the underworld were as pleasant as possible.