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CHAPTER 5: KITCHEN ESSENTIALS 2 ProStart Year 1. EQUIPMENT USED IN THE FLOW OF FOOD Receiving Tables/receiving areas, scales, utility carts Storage Shelving,

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 5: KITCHEN ESSENTIALS 2 ProStart Year 1. EQUIPMENT USED IN THE FLOW OF FOOD Receiving Tables/receiving areas, scales, utility carts Storage Shelving,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 5: KITCHEN ESSENTIALS 2 ProStart Year 1

2 EQUIPMENT USED IN THE FLOW OF FOOD Receiving Tables/receiving areas, scales, utility carts Storage Shelving, refrigerators, freezers Pre-Preparation Knives, Hand tools and small equipment, measuring tools, pots and pans Food Prep Cutters, mixers, steamers, broilers, ranges, ovens. Holding and Serving Hot boxes, coffee makers, beverage machines, steam tables, speed racks

3 KNIVES Used in the butchering areas Separates meat from the bones Blade is thin and flexible All purpose knife used for cutting, chopping, mincing, and slicing BoningChef’s

4 KNIVES Heavy, rectangular knife to chop all kinds of food Used for cutting through bones Thin, flexible blade for cutting fish fillets CleaverFillet

5 KNIVES Trim and pare fruits and vegetables General purpose knife ParingSantoku

6 KNIVES Cooks use this knife to cut cakes and breads Slicer

7 WHAT IS A STEEL AND WHY IS IT USED? A steel is a long metal rod that is lightly grooved and magnetized. It removes microscopic burs that are created as a knife is sharpened How do you use one? Drag the knife along the steel at a 20 degree angle pushing the knife away from you

8 SMALLWARES China Cap Pierced metal cone strainer; used to strain liquids Colander Drains liquid from cooked pasta and veggies Sieve Mesh screen used to sift flour and other dry baking ingredients Chinois A very fine China Cap Strainer Mesh-like material used to strain items

9 SMALLWARES Offset spatula Turns food on griddle or broiler Rubber spatula Long handle, used to fold ingredients together and scrape the sides of the bowls Sandwich Spreader Short, stubby spatula Straight Spatula Flexible, rounded tipped tool used for icing cakes, spreading fillings, and glazes

10 WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? Pots Available in a range of sizes based on volume Pans Usually smaller and shallower than pots General stove-top cooking

11 CARING FOR TYPES OF METALS Aluminum Hand-wash in soapy water Use a nonabrasive (soft) cleaner to remove stains Cast Iron Wash in warm water with soap Keep properly conditioned and dry to prevent rust and pitting Chrome Wash in warm water with soap or detergent Do not use harsh cleaners

12 CARING FOR TYPES OF METALS Copper Use commercial cleaners to remove discoloration before regular washing Stainless Steel Wash in hot, soapy water or warm chemicals and water solution Rinse well-dry right away to avoid water spots Nonstick Coating Use a plastic mesh scrubber to scrub inside the non- stick pan to avoid scratching Remove residue from bottom of the pan or food may burn

13 WHAT IS THIS TOOL? Manual operated slicer made of stainless steel with adjustable blades to slice and julienne Also known as a hand- held blender, stick blender, or burr mixer Used to puree and blend foods MandolinImmersion Blender

14 WHAT DOES EACH MIXER ATTACHMENT DO? Flat Paddle Mix, Mash and cream soft foods Wire Whip To beat and add air to light foods Wing Whip A heavier version of the wire whip Pastry Knife To mix shortening into dough Dough Hook Used to mix heavy, thick dough

15 WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? Convection Has a fan that rotates the hot air around the food as it cooks Conventional Have the heat source located on the floor of the oven so that the heat rises

16 WHAT’S THIS?? Any type of hot water bath to keep hot foods hot while serving Bain- Marie Use to keep food items hot during a buffet Chafing Dish Made of metal or steel Shelves on wheels used to move food Speed Rack Holds hotel pans Holds hot foods to keep hot Steam Table

17 MISE EN PLACE Mise en Place French for “to put everything in its place”

18 PRE-PREPARATION STEPS 1. Assemble tools 2. Assemble ingredients 3. Wash, trim, cut, prepare, and measure the ingredients 4. Prepare the equipment (preheat oven, line the baking sheets)

19 WHAT IS A SEASONING? Something that enhances the flavor of a dish without changing the dish Salt, Pepper, Sugar, and Acid are the 4 seasonings.

20 WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? Herbs Leaves, stems, or flowers of aromatic plants Spices Bark, roots, seeds, buds, or berries from aromatic plants

21 WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? Dried Herbs Moisture is removed Keep away from heat, light, and wind Fresh Herbs Use 2-3 times more if substituting for dried herbs

22 WHAT’S UNIQUE? Garlic and Onion They are oil-soluble This means they work well when added to cooking oil

23 HOW DO YOU SEPARATE EGG WHITES? 1 Crack open the egg over a bowl 2 Transfer the egg back and forth between the shells, letting the white drop out of the shell into the bowl 3 Place yolk in one of the empty bowls If any yolk gets into the whites, make sure to remove them with a spoon

24 HOW DO YOU WHIP EGG WHITES? 1 Clean the bowl and the whisk really well 2 Start with the egg whites at room temperature 3 Begin whipping the egg whites by hand or using a machine at medium speed Tilt the bowl to make the whipping by hand easier

25 DEFINE… Barding Wrapping an item (usually in meat) with strips of fat before cooking Marinating Soaking an item in a combination of wet and dry ingredients

26 DRY-HEAT COOKING METHODS Rapid cooking method; uses high heat from source located above the food Broiling Simple dry-heat method used for cooking smaller pieces of food. Cooked above the heat source Grilling Cooks food by surrounding the items with hot, dry air Roasting/Baking

27 DRY-HEAT COOKING METHODS Cooking on a hot, flat surface OR in a dry, heavy-bottomed fry pan/cast iron skillet Griddling Cooks food rapidly in a small amount of fat over high heat Sautéing Close to sauté Cooked over high heat, generally in a wok, and stirred quickly Stir-Fry

28 DRY-HEAT COOKING METHODS Cook in an oil over less intense heat than sautéing or pan-frying Pan- Fry Bread or batter coat it Immerse in hot fat Fry until done Deep- Fry

29 MOIST-HEAT COOKING METHODS Completely submerge food in a liquid that is at a constant, moderate temperature Simmering Surface of the liquid should show some motion Bubbles should not break the surface Poaching Partially cook food AKA (par-cooking) Blanching Surround food in steam in a confined space such as a steamer basket, cabinet, or combi- oven Steaming

30 COMBINATION COOKING METHODS Primarily used for larger cuts of meat Sear food in hot oil Partially cover in enough hot liquid to finish off dish Braising For smaller pieces of food Similar to braising; requires more liquid Cut into bite-size pieces, blanch or sear them Stewing

31 WHAT IS PLATING? The decision about what serving vessel will be used to present the product Layout of the items on the plate or bowl Garnishing of the item is included in this decision

32 WHAT SHOULD YOU CONSIDER WHEN PLATING? 1. Look at the plate/bowl as a picture frame. Select the right dish for the portion size 2. Maintain a good balance of colors. Remember 3 colors are usually enough 3. Height makes any plate more attractive 4. Always cut the ingredients neatly and uniformly 5. Keep it simple

33 WHAT DOES RDA STAND FOR? Recommended Dietary Allowances

34 VEGETARIAN DIETS Vegetarian Diets Vegan Strictest diet Will consume no dairy, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, or anything animal related Lacto- Vegetarian All vegan items but won’t eat dairy products Ovo- Vegetarian All vegan items but won’t eat egg products Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian All vegan items but won’t eat egg or dairy products

35 DIETARY GUIDELINES 1. Adequate nutrition within calorie needs 2. Weight management 3. Physical activity 4. Fats 5. Encourage food groups 6. Carbohydrates 7. Sodium and potassium 8. Alcoholic beverages in moderation

36 MY PYRAMID GrainsVegetablesFruitsMilk and Dairy ProductsMeat and Beans

37 MY PYRAMID KEY THEMES ProportionalityVarietyPhysical ActivityModerationGradual ImprovementPersonalization

38 WHAT DOES THE FDA REQUIRE ON FOOD LABELS 1. Serving size and servings per container 2. Total calories and calories from fat 3. Total fat and saturated fat 4. Trans fat 5. Cholesterol 6. Sodium 7. Total carbohydrates and dietary fiber 8. Protein 9. Vitamins A and C, Calcium, and Iron

39 OBESITY Several causes of obesity are known: 1. Poverty and food insecurity Psychological food issues may develop after a period of extreme hunger or starvation 2. Family history 3. Lack of physical activity 4. Excessive caloric intake for their needs Lack of nutrition knowledge, larger portion sizes, emotional reasons, or enjoyment of food


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